PanGlobish


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Hello world! Welcome to learn about Panglobish, the helping language for international business and friendship.

Panglobish is a simple language that helps people to talk with each other when they don't have any other language in common.

All words in Panglobish are international. The basic words are similar to English and the rest come from other important languages, including French, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Hindi and Swahili.

Panglobish is compatible with English on a basic level. It's like a simplified version of English that is spoken with a foreign accent. So you can use Panglobish already now everywhere in the world where English is understood to get a hotel room, to order a taxi, to buy souvenirs and to do many other things.

Panglobish is regular and simple. Therefore it can be learned much easier and faster than English and other national languages. There aren't any exceptions or complex grammatical rules in Panglobish. Everybody can learn Panglobish to a good level in a short period of time! Panglobish is an excellent choice for the global second language because it improves the quality of international communication. It's better to speak good Panglobish than bad English.

The 10 Rules of Panglobish

Panglobish is so simple that its basic grammar can be described in only ten rules, all of which can fit on a sheet of paper. There are no exceptions.

  1. World Words: Panglobish is an evenly global language. International words are borrowed from all parts of the world to Panglobish. They are adapted to the Panglobish pronunciation and orthography. One base word is admitted and additional words are built from it according to rule 10.
  2. Spelling and pronunciation: Spelling is simple and regular. Each word is pronounced exactly as it is written. Almost every letter and letter-combination denotes always the same sound.
  3. Regular Accent: If the word has one or two syllables, the first syllable is accented. If the word has three or more syllables, the second syllable is accented.
  4. Nouns: Nouns have only one form, always the same. Number is indicated by number words and articles. Case is indicated by prepositions.
  5. Numerals: The cardinal numbers are:
    • 0 zero, 1 un, 2 due, 3 tri, 4 for, 5 faive, 6 sixe, 7 seven, 8 eite, 9 nain, 10 ten.
    • Greater than ten: 11 ten un, 12 ten due, 13 ten tri, etc.
    • Tens: 20 due ten, 30 tri ten, 40 for ten, etc.
    • Hundreds: 100 un hunde, 200 due hunde, 300 tri hunde, etc.
    • Thousands: 1000 un tauzen, 2000 due tauzen, 3000 tri tauzen, etc.
    • The cardinal numbers, when placed after a noun, become ordinal numbers.
  6. Adjectives: The adjective is always placed before the noun with the exception of the ordinal numbers.
    • The comparative of equality is as...as (as...as).
    • The comparative of superiority is mor...dan (more...than).
    • The comparative of inferiority is les...dan (less...than).
  7. Pronouns:
    • The personal pronouns are: mi I, tu you (sg.), he he or she, wi we, yu you (pl.), de they.
    • The possessive pronouns are: mi's my, tu's your, he's his or her, wi's our, yu's your, de's their.
    • The interrogative pronouns are: wa what, hu who, hu's whose.
  8. Verbs: The verb does not change in person, number and tense.
    • is indicates an ongoing event.
    • haf indicates a completed event whose results have an effect on the present situation.
    • was indicates a completed event that has no connection to the present situation.
    • wil indicates a future event.
  9. Word order: The word order is subject – verb – object, in declarations and questions alike.
  10. Word building: In Panglobish, words change only when their actual meaning changes. Words don't ever change only to serve in a different grammatical role.

Spelling and pronunciation

Panglobish is phonetic in two directions:

  1. When you read a word, you can always pronounce it.
  2. When you hear a word, you can almost always write it. (Foreign names can be an exception.)

Once you have learned the few rules and the way letters are pronounced, you can read Panglobish aloud and be understood.

Basic Latin Alphabet

Panglobish is written in the basic Latin alphabet – the same as English! It doesn't have any of the accented letters, which are different from language to language. So it can be typed, printed and used with computers and smart devices in most countries without any difficulty.

A B C Ch D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S Sh T U V W X Y Z

Sounds

Panglobish has its own sound system and its own spelling system that are mostly similar to those of the languages of continental Europe and Latin America.

Vowels

Panglobish has six oral vowels. They are represented by the five vowel letters A, E, I, O and U in the writing system, where E represents both /e/ and /ə/.

Panglobish IPA Pronunciation advise
A /a/ As in father.
E /e/ As in bet when it is in accented syllable.
E /ə/ As in happen when it is in unaccented syllables.
I /i/ As in machine.
O /o/ As in or.
U /u/ As in rule.

There are also several common vowel sequences – au, ou, ai, ei, oi – which are pronounced as the consecutive vowels with or without a hiatus in between.

Consonants

Panglobish has 21 consonant sounds. They are represented in the writing system by 19 Latin letters and their combinations.

Panglobish IPA Pronunciation advise
B /b/
C /ts/ Like ts in bits or alternatively like c in city.
Ch /tʃ/ Always like ch in chat.
D /d/
F /f/
G /g/ Always hard as in get. Never soft as in gel.
H /h/
J /dʒ/ Always like J in judge_ or the soft g in gel.
K /k/
L /l/
M /m/
N /n/
P /p/
R /r~ɹ/ Always voiced as in American English. Can be trilled as in Indian English. Never silent!
S /s/ Always voiceless like s in sister.
Sh /ʃ/ Like sh in shop.
T /t/
V /v/
W /w/
X /ks/
Y /j/ Like y in yes.
Z /z/

External Sounds

There are also additional letters and letter-combinations, which can be used only in external words, which do not belong to the common Panglobish vocabulary, like names of specific places and individual people. They are not used in any common Panglobish words.

Panglobish IPA Pronunciation advise
Kh /x/ Voiceless velar fricative, like ch in Loch in Scottish.
Gh /ɣ/ Voiced velar fricative
Ph /ɸ/ Voiceless bilabial fricative
Bh /β/ Voiced bilabial fricative
Q /q/ Voiceless uvular stop
Qh /χ/ Voiceless uvular fricative
Rh /ʀ~ʁ/ Voiced uvular trill or fricative like rh in rhume in Parisian French.
Th /θ/ Like th in thing.
Dh /ð/ Like th in they.
Zh /ʒ/ Like z in azure.

The additional letters and digraphs are used locally. Their purpose is to help to transfer names in the local language to the international language, so that the local people can recognize them. It's OK if you don't know how to pronounce any of these sounds. Just pronounce the first letter and ignore the H.

For example, the capital of Greece is called "Αθήνα" /aθina/ in the local language, Greek. The Panglobish version of this name is "Athina". It can be pronounced either /aθina/ (as the Greek do) or /atina/ (in the simplified international accent). We want to preserve the sound of this word as much as possible, but we can't use any of the non-Latin letters, so it becomes "Athina" in Panglobish.

Examples:
Athina Athens (the capital of Greece)
Khartum Khartoum (the capital of Sudan)
Rhone Rhône (a river in France and Switzerland)
Rhein Rhine (a river that flows through Switzerland, Austria, Liechtenstein, Germany, France and the Netherlands)

Word Structure

Panglobish words are structurally rather simple. A syllable can include in maximum:

  • one initial consonant
  • one liquid consonant (L or R)
  • one or two vowels, and
  • one final consonant from the following: M, N, NG, L, R, F, S, and SH.

Some of the heaviest words in practice are kristal and simple.

In addition, the following middle consonant groups are allowed: -kn-, -tn- and -tm-. They are found in a handful of loan words from Greek and Latin, like tekne (technique), etne (ethnicity) and ritme (rhythm).

Adapting Loan Words

As a general rule, loan words are adapted to the phonetic spelling system of Panglobish. This rule is applied to both common words and proper names.

Common words

A common word refers to a thing as a member of a group, not as an individual. For example dog is a common word but Mutt is not, it is a proper name.

Common words, which are in general use, must fit into the normal word structure, and they can include only the normal sounds of Panglobish.

Most Panglobish words are structurally simpler than the corresponding English words. Difficult consonant groups are avoided in the beginning, middle and end of words, so state becomes estate, actor becomes ater, and saint becomes sante in Panglobish. Also final stop consonants are avoided, so for example good becomes gude in Panglobish.

Panglobish doesn't have the TH sounds that exist in English, so they are usually realized as T and D in words that are borrowed from English. For example da (the), de (they), tri (three), and ting (thing).

Proper names

Infrequently used common nouns and proper nouns can be more complex than ordinary words, and they can include external sounds that don't belong to the normal sound inventory of Panglobish.

For example, family name Smith may remain Smith in Panglobish, although it is structurally more complex than common Panglobish words, and it has the external TH sound.

Large and Small Letters

Both large and small letters (i.e. upper-case and lower-case letters) are used in writing Panglobish.

Large letters are used in two situations: to begin a proper name, and to represent a name or another word with only the initial letter.

The first word of sentences is not capitalized.

Proper names

Personal names and other proper names are capitalized mostly in the same way as in English. For example Thomas Stearns Eliot is written Tomas Sternz Eliot in Panglobish, and it can be abbreviated to initial letters variously Tomas S Eliot, TS Eliot and TSE.

In titles of artistic works, like books, songs and films, every word begins with a large letter. For example, Da Senyer Of Di Ring (The Lord of the Rings).

Acronyms

Initialisms, like ASEAN, EU, NAFTA and UN, are always written in large letters. Other acronyms may use a mixture of large and small letters, like for example GULag, which is an acronym of the Russian words "Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerey".

Capital letters are also used in the standard international acronyms. For example: 10 Mb (ten megabite), 100 GB (hunde gigabaite), 2 mm (due milimetre), 1 kJ (un kilojul).

Syllabification

[-] Words may be divided into syllables with a hyphen. The hyphen is placed between spoken syllables. For example: bus, ka-fe, yu-mor, pos-te, a-me-ri-ka-nis-me.

Punctuation

<.> All kinds of sentences may end with a full stop.

<?> Questions may end alternatively with a question mark.

Exclamation mark indicates loudness or emphasis.

<...> Three dots (i.e. ellipsis) indicates incompleteness or uncertainty.

<:> Colon indicates the beginning of an explanation, quotation or list.

<,> Comma indicates a small pause or separation between clauses or listed items.

Because the first word of sentences is not capitalized, a space may be inserted before and after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence. This practice helps to put sentences clearly apart.

un dei, mi wan gow to da bazar . mi mite mi's frende der . he sey: halo ! yu gude, wa ? mi sey: mi gude ! den wi gow to mi's haus en yam som piza .

In informal texts, smileys, emoticons and emojis may be used to indicate mood. For example :) indicates happiness and :( indicates sadness.

mi love yu :) = I love you.
yu no love mi :( = You don't love me.

Accent

The accent or stress falls on the first or the second syllable depending on the length of the base word.

If the base word has one or two syllables, the first syllable is accented, and secondary accent falls on odd-numbered syllables. Ex. kómun, kómunìte.

If the base word has three or more syllables, the second syllable is accented, and secondary accent falls on even-numbered syllables. Ex. matúre, matúritè.

When there is i or u and another vowel, the two vowels count as one syllable. Ex. páuze, dúnia, rádio, Rúsia, Arábia, Itália.

The elements of compound words keep their original accent. Ex. télefóne, kílográme.

Accented syllables are louder in general. If the accented syllable ends in a vowel, the vowel is pronounced longer.

Unaccented e can be pronounced as a weak schwa sound /ə/. Ex. toke /tókə/, mature /matúrə/.

Tone and Intonation

Word tone and sentence intonation don't have any grammatical function in Panglobish.

Panglobish is not a tonal language. The pitch or melody of syllables in words doesn't affect the meaning of the word.

Also intonation i.e. the melody of a phrase, doesn't affect the meaning of the phrase. For example it doesn't matter whether a questions is said in falling, rising or level intonation.

It is naturally possible to express emotions, like kindness and anger, with intonation – but they are not grammatical functions of the language.

Nouns

A noun is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

Nouns are unchanging in Panglobish. The same form of the word is used regardless of number and definiteness. Number, definiteness and other categories are expressed by separate words.

Number

In Panglobish, nouns are the same in all numbers. Nouns don't change to indicate is there one (i.e. singular) or many (i.e. plural) instances of the thing that the noun refers to. So it's not like English where the singular and the plural of nouns are usually different: one man but many men, one ox but many oxen, one cat but many cats. Rather, all Panglobish words are like the word "sheep" is in English, which you count one sheep, two sheep, three sheep, etc.

In Panglobish, the number of things is indicated with number words and other quantity words.

un haus – one house
due haus – two houses
tri haus – three houses
for haus – four houses

All number words can be found in the chapter about numerals.

Common words for indicating plurality include som (some) and meni (many).

som haus – some houses
meni haus – many houses

Definite and indefinite articles

Definite articles, like "the" in English, are used when we are referring to a specific thing or something that has been mentioned before. Indefinite articles, like "a" and "an" in English, refer to a non-specific thing or something that has not been mentioned before.

If you know what you want, you just use a definite article, and if you don’t know what you want, you use an indefinite article.

Indefinite articles

There are two indefinite articles in Panglobish, un is used when we refer to one non-specific thing, and som is used when we refer to many things.

un apel – an apple or one apple
som apel – some apples

un haus – a house or one house
som haus – some houses

Definite articles

There are two definite articles in Panglobish, da is used when we refer to one specific thing, and di is used when we refer to many things.

da man – the man
di man – the men

da haus – the house
di haus – the houses

Proper names

Adaptation to Panglobish

Proper names are typically adapted to the writing system of Panglobish. For example, it is obviously better to use Moskva (Moscow) instead of "Москва", and Beijing (Peking) instead of "北京" in the international language. Likewise it is probably better to use Tuson instead of "Tucson", Marsei instead of "Marseille", and Kishineu instead of "Chișinău" in order to ensure correct pronunciation.

Titles of respect

Names of people can be tagged with titles of respect sa, ma, pa. They are meant to show respect and politeness.

sa is the universal title of respect. It can be used in formal and informal situations and for all age groups, social groups and genders. The closest translation for it in English is Mr or Ms or Mx.

ma can be used when addressing any woman regardless of age, social status, and marital status. It translates to several titles in English including Mrs, Miss, Ms, Madam and Ma'am.

pa can be used when addressing any man regardless of age, social status, and marital status. It translates to several titles in English including Mister and Sir.

There are different customs concerning honorific titles in different cultures. In some cultures it is not polite to use someone's name without using a title of respect before it. Therefore it is advisable to use them always when you meet new people from different cultures.

A title of respect can be used with a given name, a family name, or both.

sa Bili King – Mx Billy King
sa Bili – Mx Billy
sa King – Mx King

It is always polite to use the gender-neutral title. However, some people have are more accustomed to using the male and female titles.

pa Felipe Gonzales – Mr Felipe Gonzales
pa Felipe – Mr Felipe
pa Gonzales – Mr Gonzales

The order of the given name and the family name may be different in different cultures. For example in Chinese it is common to put the family name first.

ma Wang Lili – Ms Lili Wang
ma Lili – Ms Lili
ma Wang – Ms Wang

Numerals

The basic numbers sound almost the same in Panglobish as in English. However, greater numbers are arranged more logically in Panglobish.

Ones Ten and over 20 and over 30 and over
0 zero 10 (un) ten 20 due ten 30 tri ten
1 un 11 ten un 21 due ten un 31 tri ten un
2 due 12 ten due 22 due ten due 32 tri ten due
3 tri 13 ten tri 23 due ten tri 33 tri ten tri
4 for 14 ten for 24 due ten for 34 tri ten for
5 faive 15 ten faive 25 due ten faive 35 tri ten faive
6 sixe 16 ten sixe 26 due ten sixe 36 tri ten sixe
7 seven 17 ten seven 27 due ten seven 37 tri ten seven
8 eite 18 ten eite 28 due ten eite 38 tri ten eite
9 nain 19 ten nain 29 due ten nain 39 tri ten nain
Ones Tens Hundreds Thousands
0 zero
1 un 10 (un) ten 100 un hunde 1000 un tauzen
2 due 20 due ten 200 due hunde 2000 due tauzen
3 tri 30 tri ten 300 tri hunde 3000 tri tauzen
4 for 40 for ten 400 for hunde 4000 for tauzen
5 faive 50 faive ten 500 faive hunde 5000 faive tauzen
6 sixe 60 sixe ten 600 sixe hunde 6000 sixe tauzen
7 seven 70 seven ten 700 seven hunde 7000 seven tauzen
8 eite 80 eite ten 800 eite hunde 8000 eite tauzen
9 nain 90 nain ten 900 nain hunde 9000 nain tauzen

Greater numbers follow the same logic.

10'000 un ten tauzen
100'000 un hunde tauzen
1'000'000 un milion
10'000'000 un ten milion
100'000'000 un hunde milion
1'000'000'000 un tauzen milion

Note: The words "billion" and "milliard" are not used in Panglobish because their meanings are different from country to country. Instead, one should say tauzen milion (thousand millions) or giga.

The prefixes of the International System of Units (SI) are used in common language in Panglobish. It is normal to say, for example:
eite giga person is live in Dunia.
– Eight billion (or milliard) people live on Earth.

Prefix Symbol Base 10 Decimal
yota Y 10²⁴ 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
zeta Z 10²¹ 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
eksa E 10¹⁸ 1 000 000 000 000 000 000
peta P 10¹⁵ 1 000 000 000 000 000
tera T 10¹² 1 000 000 000 000
giga G 10⁹ 1 000 000 000
mega M 10⁶ 1 000 000
kilo k 10³ 1 000
hekto h 10² 100
desa da 10¹ 10

Months

The names of the months are:

  1. Januari – January
  2. Februari – February
  3. Marte – March
  4. April – April
  5. Mai – May
  6. June – June
  7. Yuli – July
  8. Auguste – August
  9. Setembre – September
  10. Otobre – October
  11. Novembre – November
  12. Desembre – December

In addition there is Ramazan (Ramadan), the holy ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar.

Days of the week

In ancient Greece, the days of the week were named after the Seven Luminaries, which consist of the Sun, Moon and the five planets that are visible to the naked eye. Each of the luminaries was also represented by a deity. This system spread to Rome, India, China and almost all across the world.

In English, the Roman deities were substituted by Germanic deities: Sunday = sun's day, Monday = moon's day, Tuesday = Tiw's day, Wednesday = Woden's day, Thursday = Thor's day, and Saturday = Saturn's day.

In Panglobish, the names of the days of the week follow the Roman system, whereas the English system involved Germanic deities.

Luminary Day of the week
Sole soledi
Sun Sunday
Lune lunedi
moon Monday (moon's day)
Marte martedi
Mars Tuesday (Tiw's day)
Merkur merkurdi
Mercury Wednesday (Woden's day)
Jove jovedi
Jupiter Thursday (Thor's day)
Venera venerdi
Venus Friday (Frige's day)
Saturne saturdi
Saturn Saturday (Saturn's day)

Alternatively there is also a number-based system of naming.

  1. wike dey un – Monday (the 1st day of the week)
  2. wike dey due – Tuesday (the 2nd day of the week)
  3. wike dey tri – Wednesday (the 3rd day of the week)
  4. wike dey for – Thursday (the 4th day of the week)
  5. wike dey faive – Friday (the 5th day of the week)
  6. wike dey sixe – Saturday (the 6th day of the week)
  7. wike dey seven – Sunday (the 7th day of the week)

However, this is an unreliable system because the first day of the week can be different in different countries. In addition it is important to differentiate the days of the week (wike dey) and the days of the month (mes dey).

Modifiers

A modifier is a word that adds some quality or description to another word, for example good, bad, big, and fast.

The adjective is always placed before the noun.

da nuve haus – the new house
da bele haus – the beautiful house
da nuve bele haus – the new beautiful house

Comparison

Equality is expressed with the word as (as, like).

da as nuve haus – the equally new house

Comparatives are made using the words mor (more) and les (less).

un mor nuve haus – a newer house
un les nuve haus – a less new house

Superlatives are made using the words maxim (maximally, the most) and minim (minimally, the least).

da maxim nuve haus – the newest house
da minim bele haus – the least beautiful house

The point of comparison is introduced with dan (than).

yu's haus is mor nuve dan de's haus. – Your house is newer than their house.
de's haus is les nuve dan yu's haus. – Their house is less new than your house.

Equality is introduced with as.

wi's haus is as nuve as yu's haus. – Our house is as new as your house.

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in Panglobish are:

Person Singular Plural
1st mi (I) wi (we)
2nd tu (you) yu (you all)
3rd he (he or she) de (they)

All personal pronouns are gender-neutral in Panglobish. We don't differentiate the sexes in any of them. So the third person singular pronoun he means both him and her (or he and she).

The singular pronoun tu can be used in all situations, both formal and informal, regardless of the differences of social status and age of the speakers. In this way it is similar to Swedish du. However, some speakers may prefer to use tu only with family and intimate friends. Then its usage is comparable to German du, French tu, Russian ты (ty) and Hindi .

It is always acceptable to use the plural pronoun yu instead of the singular pronoun tu.

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns are made simply by combining a basic pronoun with the possessive marker 's.

Person Singular Plural
1st mi's (my) wi's (our)
2nd tu's (your) yu's (your)
3rd he's (his or her) de's (their)

Interrogative pronouns

wa what
hu who
hu's whose

Demonstrative pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are the same as the definite articles:
da this, that
di these, those

As they do not differentiate between near and far, they can be further qualified by adding hir (here) or der (there).

da hir haus = this house
di hir haus = these houses
da der haus = that house
di der haus = those houses

Verbs

Verbs are unchanging in Panglobish. They don't change in person, number and time like in English. Verbs are not conjugated at all.

Person and number

Person and number are indicated by a personal pronoun or a noun.

mi love tu. – I love you.
wi love yu. – We love you.
he love tu. – He or she loves you.

There is normally a particle of time before the verb, when the subject is a noun (instead of a pronoun).

Jorje is love Mari. – George loves Mary.
tri siste is love un man. – Three sisters love one man.

Time

Panglobish does not have grammatical markers for tense i.e. a verb's position in time (past, present, or future). Ordinary expressions of time, such as laste dei (yesterday), neste dei (tomorrow), and nau (now), can be used for telling when exactly something happened.

Panglobish does have grammatical words for expressing temporal aspects. Aspects describe how an event can be viewed in relation to other events in time.

  • The progressive aspect (is) indicates an event that is ongoing.
  • The perfect aspects
    • The resultative aspect (haf) indicates a completed event whose results have an effect on the present situation.
    • The experiential aspect (was) indicates a completed event that has no connection to the present situation.
  • The future aspect (wil) indicates a situation that hasn't taken place yet.

The figure below illustrates how the different aspects relate to the time under discussion i.e. the "present time" in the narrative.

Figure. The aspects in relation to the narrative present.

     ┌─────────┐       │
     │   was   │  ···  │
     └─────────┘       │
     ┌─────────┐       │
     │   haf   ├───────┤
     └─────────┘       │
                  ┌────┴────┐
                  │   is    │
                  └────┬────┘
                       │       ┌─────────┐   
                       │       │   wil   │
                       │       └─────────┘
◀──────────────────────┼──────────────────────▶
earlier          at present               later

Progressive aspect

The progressive aspect indicates that an event is ongoing ("in progress") and incomplete at the time under consideration. It is marked with is before the verb.

Sara is vide da TV. – Sara is watching the TV.
wi is vizite yu's lande. – We are visiting your land.

Note: Normally is can be used instead of is bi.

Sara is mi's frende. – Sarah is my friend.
wi is in London. – We are in London.

Experiential aspect

The experiential aspect describes a completed past situation that is not linked to a later time. It is marked with was before the verb.

mi's mama was vizite da Kanada tri ves. – My mother visited Canada three times (but she won't go there anymore).
mi was luze mi's chabi laste dei – I lost my keys yesterday (but I found them).
Juli was bi mi's frende fo ten yer. – Julie was my friend for ten years. (She's not anymore my friend.)

Resultative aspect

The resultative aspect describes a completed past situation whose consequences are relevant to the time under discussion. It is marked with haf before the verb.

mi haf nou Juli fo ten yer. – I have known Julie for ten years. (I still know her.)
he haf safare do Kanada. – He has traveled to Canada. (And he still is there.)
mi haf luze mi's chabi! – I have lost my keys! (They are still missing.)
Juli haf bi mi's frende fo ten yer. – Julie has been my friend for ten years. (And she still is.)

Future aspect

The future aspect describes that the situation will probably take place after the time under consideration. It is marked with wil before the verb.

wi wil toke da Panglobish. – We will speak Panglobish.
mi wil bi yu's frende. – I will be your friend.

To be

The verb bi (to be) is used for indicating identity or sameness (ex. "She is Maria"), membership of a class (ex. "The cat is an animal"), and properties (ex. "The sky is blue").

In Panglobish, bi is a normal, unchanging verb. The aspect markers can be used together with bi.

mi is bi hapi. – I am happy. / I am being happy.
mi haf bi hapi. – I have been happy.
mi was bi hapi. – I was happy.
mi wil bi hapi. – I will be happy.

It is common to leave bi out in the progressive and experiential aspects. So is is normally used instead of is bi and was instead of was bi.

mi is hapi. – I am happy.
mi was hapi. – I was happy.

The form of bi doesn't change in persons. Only one form is used in all persons.

mi is (bi) hapi. – I am happy.
wi is (bi) hapi. – We are happy.
tu is (bi) hapi. – You are happy. (singular)
yu is (bi) hapi. – You are happy. (plural)
he is (bi) hapi. – He or she is happy.
de is (bi) hapi. – They are happy.

Infinitive

An infinitive verb is a verb that can function as a noun. The helping verb du marks the following verb as an infinitive.

du bi – to be
du now – to know
du love – to love


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An infinitive verb can function as a subject or object.

mi love du yam. – I love to eat.
du yam is gude. – To eat is good.
du yam is du joy. – To eat is to enjoy.

An infinitive verb can take a noun complement.

du yam un apel – to eat an apple
du love da live – to love the life
is gude du love da live. – It is good to love the life.

The infinitive marker is not used with helping verbs.

mi wan gow. – I want to go.
mi kan gow. – I can go.
wi mus gow. – We have to go. / We must go.
yu mey gow. – You may go.

Sometimes there are alternatives for using the infinitive. For example, adjectives that involve a verb can be formed with a plain verb or with an infinitive verb.

un pley izi gitare – an easy playing guitar
un izi du pley gitare – an easy to play guitar

Verbs in series

There can be two, three or even more verbs in a series, and all of them are about the same subject.

mi yam un pay. – I eat a pay.
mi gow yam un pay. – I go to eat a pie.
mi kan gow yam un pay. – I can go to eat a pie.
mi wan kan gow yam un pay. – I want to can go to eat a pie.

Sentence structure

Figure. The sentence structure in Panglobish.

┌─────────┐ ┌─────────┐ ┌─────────┐ ┌──────────┐ ┌────────────────┐
│ subject │ │   verb  │ │ object  │ │ prep.phr.│ │ modal particle │
└─────────┘ └─────────┘ └─────────┘ └──────────┘ └────────────────┘

Prepositions

A prepositions begins a preposition phrase that tells additional information about the event that the sentence is about. There are a handful of real prepositions in Panglobish, as listed below, and the others are verbs that can function in the same way as prepositions.

a – at
in – in
of – of, from, since
to – to, toward, until
on – on, about
be – by, with, by means of

mi live in London. – I live in London.
mi safar of London to Paris be bus. – I travel from London to Paris by bus.
mi tinke on yu. – I think about you.

When a verb plays the role of a preposition, it is always followed by an article (or another determiner) and the object.

mi's haus is bake da parke. – My house is behind the park.
da bazar is inter da hotel en da plasa. – The market is between the hotel and the square.

Note that if there's no article between the "preposition" and another word, there is a compound word instead.

da rute inter di kontinente – the route between the continents
da interkontinental rute – the intercontinental route

Common preposition-like words:
bake – at the back, behind
excepe – except
extre – outside
face – facing, toward
grace – thanks to
infra – under, below
inkluze – including
inter – between
kontre – against, countering
mide – amid, in the middle
pos – after, later
pre – before
pro – for, pro
ronde – about, around
tema – about, on the topic of
via – via, by way of

Modal particles indicate how the speaker thinks that the content of the sentence relates to the participants' common knowledge or add mood to the meaning of the sentence.

The word wa is used to turn a declarative sentence into a question.

yu wan yam som piza. – You want to eat some pizza.
yu wan yam som piza, wa? – Do you want to eat some pizza?

Another way to tag a question is to add the word no at the end of a sentence. The no can represent any English question tag, so depending on context it will translate as: "isn't it?", "aren't they?", "can't she?", "wouldn't they?", etc.

yu wan yam som piza, no? – You want to eat pizza, don't you?

ye indicates that the speaker thinks a certain fact should already be known to the listener.

mi love yu, ye! – I do love you!

The word or indicates uncertainty. It is used when the speaker wants to be reassured.

yu love mi, or... – You love me, or...

Word Derivation

Forming a new word from an existing word is called word derivation. Often a new word is formed by adding a prefix or suffix, such as un- or -ness. For example, unhappy and happiness derive from the root word happy.

Zero Derivation

Zero derivation means conversion of a word of a certain word class to a different word class without any change in form. In Panglobish, this is very common. In fact, most words don't belong to any fixed word classes. Instead, the word class is determined by the word's place in the sentence.

For example, the word blanke can function equally as an adjective (blank or void), noun (a blank) and verb (to make blank or to get blank).

yu have som blanke papir, no? – Do you have some blank paper?
give mi un blanke! – Give me a blank!
yu mus blanke da texte. – You must blank out the text.

Likewise, the word skribe can function as a verb (to write), a noun (a writing) and adjective (written or textual).

mi skribe un letre. – I write a letter.
un letre is un skribe misaje. – A letter is a written message.
mi love yu's skribe. – I love your writings.

Compound Words

Words can be combined freely in Panglobish to express new concepts. The last element in the combination is the main one in determining the meaning, while the preceding element only modifies the meaning.

For example, skribe meza means a type of table, 'a writing table'. Similarly, kristal klare 'crystal-clear', love lete 'love letter', kafe kupe 'coffeecup'.

Compound words may be written together or separately. Especially established compound words are usually written together. For example, the word for democracy is more commonly demekratie than deme kratie.

Affixation

Prefixes and suffixes are very important and give great flexibility to the language. The most useful ones are listed here. A few of these are in fact ordinary words which are also used on their own, but most are true prefixes or suffixes and can be used only as such, not as separate words.

Prefixes

a- 'to oneself' :
cepe 'take, catch' → acepe 'take to oneself, accept'
lige 'tie' → alige 'tie to oneself, ally'

an- 'opposite, un-, in-' :
hapi 'happy' → anhapi 'unhappy'
juste 'just, fair' → anjuste 'injust, unfair'
human 'human' → anhuman 'inhuman'

de- 'away, off' :
cepe 'take, catch' → decepe 'take away, remove'
duce 'lead, conduct' → deduce 'lead away, deduce'
parte 'part, chip' → departe 'part away, chip off'

di- 'do the opposite of' :
strute 'structure' → distrute 'destruct'
kode 'code, encode' → dikode 'decode, decipher'
kovre 'cover' → dikovre 'discover'
krese 'grow' → dikrese 'ungrow, decrease'

ex 'out' :
cepe 'take, catch' → excepe 'take out, except'
jete 'thrust' → exjete 'thrust out, eject'

in- 'in, into, in-, en-' :
jete 'thrust' → injete 'thrust in, inject'
kluze 'close, shut' → inkluze 'close in, enclose, include'

kon- 'together' :
strute 'structure' → konstrute 'construct, put together'
werke 'work' → konwerke 'work together, collaborate'

mes- 'wrong, badly' :
uze 'use' → mesuze 'misuse'

non- 'absence of, non-' :
dewiste 'theist' → nondewiste 'atheist'
sence 'sense' → nonsence 'nonsense'
tabakiste 'smoker' → nontabakiste 'non-smoker'

pos 'after' :
gere 'war' → posgeral 'post-war'
poze 'put, pose' → pospoze 'put after, postpone'

pre- 'before' :
dite 'tell'
predite 'foretell, predict'
vide 'see' → previde 'foresee, preview'

pro- 'onward, forth' :
poze 'put, pose' → propoze 'put forward, propose'
voke 'call, summon' → provoke 'call forth, provoke'

re- 'back' :
ate 'to act' → reate 'to act back, react'
turne 'to turn' → returne 'to turn back'

ri- 'again, repeatedly' :
du 'to do' → ridu 'redo, do again'
forme 'to form' → riforme 'to reform'

Suffixes

-ade 'object of' :
favore 'to favor' → favorade 'favored, favorite'
tere 'to scare or frighten' → terade 'scared, frightened'

-aje 'thing made of' :
mise 'send' → misaje 'something sent, message'
face 'face' → facaje 'facade, frontage'
limon 'lemon' → limonaje 'lemonade'

-al 'relating to, concerning' :
nacie 'nation' → nacial 'national'
socie 'society' → social 'social'
universe 'universe' → universal 'universal'

-an 'one who belongs to, one who has membership in the country, city or group' :
Amerika 'America' → Amerikan 'American'
Italia 'Italy' → Italian 'Italian'
Rusia 'Russia' → Rusian 'Russian'
Paris 'the city of Paris' → Parisan 'Parisian'
Kristia 'Christendom' → kristian 'Christian'
hume 'earth, soil' → human 'earthling' and, by extension, 'human being'

-ar 'group or series of' :
kolun 'column' → kolunar 'colonnade'

-ate 'act in the specified manner' :
rote 'wheel' → rotate 'to rotate, to turn like a wheel'
formule 'formula' → formulate 'to formulate'

-ation 'action' :
rote 'wheel' → rotation 'rotation'

-eme 'a distinct meaningful element' :
fone 'speech sound' → foneme 'phoneme, distinct speech sound'
lexe 'word' → lexeme 'lexeme'

-er 'doer, agent, -er' :
helpe 'help, assist' → helper 'helper, assistant'
beke 'bake' → beker 'baker'

-eria 'name of place for making, producing or selling' :
beker 'baker' → bekeria 'bakery'
perfume 'perfume' → perfumeria 'perfumery'

-erie 'profession or typical behaviour associated with the suffixed word' injener 'engineer' → injenerie 'engineering'

-ete 'diminutive, -ette, -let' :
cigare 'cigar' → cigarete 'cigarette'

-ful 'full of, -ful' :
helpe 'help' → helpeful 'helpful'

-ia 'area, region, country' :
Arabe 'Arab' → Arabia 'Arabia'
Itale 'Italian' → Italia 'Italy'
Rus 'Russian, Ruski' → Rusia 'Russia'

-ie 'an abstract collective or an area or field of knowledge' :
filsofe 'philosophy, world view' → filsofie 'philosophy as a discipline'
kime 'chemical' → kimie 'chemistry'

-ife 'to make, render, turn or transform into' :
petre 'stone' → petrife 'petrify, to turn to stone'
un 'one' → unife 'unify'
klare 'clear' → klarife 'clarify'

-ike 'of the style or manner of, -ish, -esque' :
baze 'base, basis' → bazike 'basic, fundamental'
fize 'physis' → fizike 'physical'
muze 'muse' → muzike 'of the muses, music'
nuve 'uusi' → nuvike 'novice, newbie'

-ime 'the most, superlative' :
pre 'fore, front' → prime 'foremost, prime'
extre 'outside, exterior' → extrime 'outermost, extreme'

-ion 'action or process' :
ate 'act, deed' → ation 'action, activity'
konsume 'consume' → konsumion 'consuming, consumption'

-ish 'language' :
English 'the English language'
Eskotish 'Scotch'
Panglobish 'world language, Panglobish'

-iste 'adherent of a way of life, -ist' :
alkohol 'alcohol' → alkoholiste 'alcoholic'
komun 'common, shared' → komuniste 'communist, adherent of shared ownership'
pacife 'pacify' → pacifiste 'pacifist'
tabake 'tobacco' → tabakiste 'smoker'

-isme 'way of thinking or behaving, -ism' :
alkohol 'alcohol' → alkoholisme 'alcoholism'
komun 'common, shared' → komunisme 'communism'
pacife 'pacify' → pacifisme 'pacifism'
tabake 'tobacco' → tabakisme 'smoking'

-ite 'quality, -ity, -ness' :
juste 'just, fair' → justite 'justice, fairness'
sane 'healthy, sound' → sanite 'health'
un 'one' → unite 'unity, oneness'

-ive 'inclinaed to' :
ate 'act, perform' → ative 'active, inclined to act'
exploze 'explode' → explozive 'explosive'

-ize 'equip with, supply with, decorate with, coat with' :
moterize 'to motorize'
komputerize 'to computerize'
robotize 'to robotize'
automatize 'to automatize'
eletrize 'to electrify'
harmonize 'to harmonize'
patinize 'to patinize'
galvanize 'to galvanize'
salize 'to salt'
kolorize 'to colorize'
aurize 'to gild, to cover with a layer of gold'

-lis 'without, -less' :
helpe 'apu' → helpelis 'helpless'
peni 'penny' → penilis 'penniless'

-os 'plenty of, -ous' :
pore 'pore' → poros – porous.

-ure 'result or product' :
korete 'to correct' → koreture 'a correction'
kulte 'cultivate a way of life' → kulture 'culture'
mixe 'mix' → mixure 'mixture'

Ideas of Panglobish

Principles of Panglobish

Panglobish is fair. Everybody has an equal chance of learning and speaking Panglobish well. It is supposed to be the great equalizer — a way of communicating that everybody can use on the same level.

Panglobish is evenly global. It borrows words from from all regions and all cultures of the world. It is the world language that stands for the whole world!

Panglobish is practical. It re-uses things that have already become international, including the basic Latin alphabet, basic words from English, and international words from Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Chinese and Arabic, among others. That way Panglobish can be used in real international communication right from the start.

Panglobish is simple. In international situations it is best to use plain words, short sentences and simple language because they are much more effective than specialized words, long sentences and complex language. So, let's keep it simple!

Panglobish feels real. It is like a lost relative of English that seems to be of the same kind as English but that is at the same time distinctly its own kind. In this regard it is similar to the real relatives of English (like German, Dutch, Afrikaans and the Scandinavian languages) and the children of English (like Jamaican, Singaporean and Nigerian versions of English).

Evenly global

Why all languages are not included?

The figure below shows cumulative distribution of the 50 most spoken native languages. The figure tells that:

  • 25 percent of the world population speaks the top-3 languages
  • 50 percent of the world speaks the top-13 languages
  • 75 percent of the world speaks the top-50 languages

The remaining languages – there are over 6000 of them! – are outside the picture. The curve, which is steep at the beginning, turns virtually into a flat line when it approaches the last language, which is spoken only by a handful of people.

The figure indicates that beyond a certain point including one more language to the mix wouldn't make the interlanguage significantly more international. For example, if the top-50 languages were already included, adding the 51st language wouldn't make much of a difference, ecause it would increase the coverage from 75.07% to 75.43%.

One can also question the practical implications of including 51 languages versus 50. The increase in coverage would be marginal, only 0.36%, and it would not help the remaining 24.24% of the world who speak other, smaller languages!


Figure. Percentage of world population by language by number of native speakers.

The vocabulary of Panglobish is based on the most spoken languages. They cover all continents and all major modern cultures of the world. They also have a lot of international words in common with less spoken languages. That's why Panglobish-like words can be found also in smaller languages.

Useful in real life

Panglobish is meant to be a useful language in real life. What does it mean? It means that you can speak it immediately in hotels, shops, taxis, airports, train stations, etc... It means that you can understand road signs and signboards of hotels, bars and restaurants. It means that you can make yourself understood.

Panglobish is open. You are allowed to use words from other languages in Panglobish. Use whatever is necessary to make yourself understood! You may say, for example, mi wan gow do "fan dien" in China, even though restoran is the normal word for restaurant in Panglobish. It's more important to get to the restaurant than to speak perfect Panglobish, isn't it?

Panglobish is not a secret language for a small club or a cult. It's more important to be able to communicate with everybody in practice than to protect "the purity of our language" on paper.

What Panglobish should sound like?

Panglobish is spoken in the "continental" manner. It means that the Germanic part of Panglobish sounds rather like German, Dutch and the Scandinavian languages, and the Romance part sounds like Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and French.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Germanic_and_Latinate_equivalents_in_English

English: nation /neɪʃən/ German: Nation /natsio:n/ Dutch: natie /na:tsi/ Russian: нация /natsiya/ French: nation /nasyõ/ Spanish: nación /nasyon/ Portuguese: nação /nasãũ/

University Word List

Minimalism?

One of the goals of Panglobish is to have less words to be memorized than English and other natural languages, but it's not meant to be minimal.

Panglobish vs English

In this page Panglobish is compared to English. The goal is to show why Panglobish would be a better global second language for people who don't have a common language. We don't have anything against English as such, but we criticize its role as a global language. English is perfectly OK as a national language and as an international language between countries where it is already spoken.

Is Panglobish just a poor copy of English?

Panglobish is much more than just a copy of English.

English is a Germanic language and therefore it is related to other Germanic languages, which are in many ways similar to English but they are independent, separate and definitely not copies of English. Take a look at this comparison (from Quora) of the same sentence in English and other Germanic languages.

English I am the son of my father and my mother.
Scots A am the son o ma faither an ma mither.
Dutch Ik ben de zoon van mijn vader en mijn moeder.
Afrikaans Ek is die seun van my pa en my ma.
German Ich bin der Sohn meines Vaters und meiner Mutter.
Yiddish Ikh bin der zun fun mayn foter un mayn muter.
Danish Jeg er søn af min far og min mor.
Norwegian Jeg er sønnen til faren min og moren min.
Swedish Jag är son till min far och min mor.
Icelandic Ég er sonur föður míns og móður minnar.
Panglobish mi is da boi of mi's patre en mi's matre.

The same sentence in Panglobish is also somewhat similar with all Germanic languages.
So English is nothing special in this regard.

Panglobish is an independent language that bears significant similarity to Germanic languages like English, German and Dutch but also to Romance languages like Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and French and, to a lesser degree, also to many other languages. It is an independent language in the great global network of languages.

Now that this issue is settled, let's continue comparing Panglobish, the challenger, and English, the reigning world language.

Main Points of Comparison

English vs Panglobish
Western Global
Many standards (British, American, Indian, etc.) One standard
Very irregular spelling Regular spelling
Irregular stress Regular stress
12 vowels and 24 consonants 6 vowels and 21 consonants
Almost 200 irregular verbs
e.g. speak, spoke, spoken
Only regular verbs
Inflected verbs
e.g. talk, talks, talked
Unchanging verbs
Inflected nouns
e.g. one life, two lives
Unchanging nouns
Inflected adjectives
e.g. good, better, best
Unchanging adjectives
Huge vocabulary Small vocabulary
Duplicate words from Germanic, Latinate and Greek roots Few duplicate words
Complex and irregular word formation Simple and regular word building
Changing word order e.g. in questions One fixed word order

Why English is not a good world language?

English is not fair

International communication should be a situation where everybody meets halfway. That's not the situation with English. Native English speakers don't need to make any effort, while the others have to spend years learning English in school or on their own. Native English speakers have an advantage over the others. They are in a dominant position.

This is mostly a result of political history. Britain was successful at invading and submitting other territories in the age of colonialism and it imposed the English language on other peoples. Although the power of Britain waned eventually, its military, economic and cultural dominance was continued by another English speaking power, the USA, until today.

Native English speakers always have an advantage over non-native speakers because they speak English fluently and they are aware of all the cultural nuances. Native English speakers speak English perfecty by definition, whereas non-native speakers speak it almost always with an accent – and it's their job to lose that accent! They also tend to make mistakes in grammar and they often select their words poorly because English vocabulary is huge, layered, and nuanced.

English is hard

English is really a hard language to learn if you grow up in an environment where it's not the main language. This fact is evidenced by the huge number of mistakes that non-native speakers make when they try to speak or write it. Although non-native speakers can make themselves understood in English, they can rarely get to the same level where native English speakers are by birth.

There are over 200 irregular verbs in English, like go, went, gone, but there should be none the world language. English has a lot of odd phrasal verbs that don't make any sense, and often they can mean many things. For example to make up means:

  • to compensate (ex. I will make up the time),
  • to invent (ex. He made up a story),
  • to apply cosmetics (ex. I make up my face),
  • to resolve (ex. I made up my mind), and
  • to become friends again (ex. They made up after the fight).

How can you learn all of them? Logic doesn't help, obviously, so you just have to memorize them one by one... And that's not a great method to learn a language! It should be the last resort when all else has failed, but you need to use the memorization method a lot when you are learning English.

There are definitely some very difficult aspects in the English language. It's not exceptionally hard, though, but it is about as hard as other European languages. The main point is that it's much harder than what the world language needs to be!

English has chaotic spelling

The English spelling is one of the hardest spellings in the world. It is complicated and often illogical. The same letter can represent different sounds in different words or, in case of silent letters, no sound at all! You don't say what you see.

There are many reasons for the chaotic state of the English spelling:

  • The 26 letters of the English alphabet are simply not enough to represent around 36 sounds of the spoken language.
  • Various invaders (Vikings, Romans and Normans) wanted to spell English in their own way.
  • The spelling did not keep up with the changes in the spoken language. Many words are still spelled the same way as in the Middle Ages.
  • English has borrowed words from many languages – and it has kept their original spelling!

There are too many irregularities to be listed here. A few rhymes are enough to show what's the matter: one - won, two - too - to, four - for - fore, eight - ate - great. For more examples, read The Chaos, a poem by Gerard Nolst Trenité.

Panglobish, on the other hand, is a regular language. Each letter (or combination of letters like ch and sh) is pronounced in the same way in every word. If you hear a word, you can always spell it. If you read a word, you can always pronounce it.

In addition, the Panglobish spelling system is quite similar to other languages. In fact, Panglobish spelling is very much like the international norm.

Let's compare the pronunciation of the word "nature" in selected European languages and Panglobish.

Language Written word Spoken word
English nature /neɪtʃə/
French nature /natyʁ/
Italian natura /natura/
Spanish naturaleza /natuɾalesa/
Portuguese natureza /natuɾezɐ/
German Natur /natuʁ/
Polish natura /natura/
Russian натура /nɐturə/
Panglobish nature /naturə/

Every language has a pure ah vowel and a normal t consonant except English. Written English is more international than spoken English. That's why Panglobish is often closer to written English than to spoken English.

Panglobish–English word list

This word list consists of words in Panglobish and their translations to English. The list is arranged in the alphabetical order by Panglobish base words.

Each dictionary entry consists of a word or compound word in Panglobish and its translation to English. There is only one translation when the meaning of the word and the meaning of its English translation are almost or completely the same.

apel - apple
april - April

When the Panglobish word can be translated in more than one way, the most common translation is first and it is followed by more specific translations inside parenthesis.

migre – move (migrate, relocate)

If there is more than one meaning, they are separated by the semicolon.

voke - call (voice; summon)

There are lists of words indicated by the bullet symbol, <•>. Each list is organized around a base word and presents a set of derived words and compound words that are formed from that base.

voke - call (voice; summon)
• vokal - vocal
• vokal son - vowel sound
• vokation - vocation (summoning)
• exvoke - evoke (call out)
• invoke - invoke (call in)


A

able - able
ablite - skill (ability)
achu - sneeze (achoo)
acinium - actinium
adres - address
adulte - adult
Afganistan - Afghanistan
Afrika - Africa
aha - realize (understand)
air - air
airplane - airplane (aeroplane)
airporte - airport (aeroport)
airporte gate - airport gate
airsfere - atmosphere
akademia - academy (university, college)
al - all
Alaska - Alaska
alkohol - alcohol (spirits)
• alkoholiste - alcoholist
Alonia - South Ossetia (Alania)
aluminium - aluminium
ame - affection
• amater - amateur
• amure - amor
ambaser - ambassador
ambasia - embassy
amen - amen (certainly)
Amerika - America (continent)
amerikium - americium
Amerikan Samoa - American Samoa
an- - un- (opposite or negative of)
Andora - Andorra
Angola - Angola
antene - antenna (feeler organ)
• antenate - antennate
Antigua - Antigua
Antigua en Barbuda - Antigua and Barbuda
apel - apple
Aphazia - Abkhazia
april - April
Arcahe - Artsakh
Arde - Earth
arde - earth (ground)
area - area (extent of surface)
argentium - silver
Argentina - Argentina
argon - argon
Ariel - Ariel
arme - weapon (arms)
armia - army (armed forces)
armari - cupboard (closet, cabinet, wardrobe)
aroma - aroma (flavor)
arsene - arsenic
arte - art
• artefete - artifact (artefact)
• artefetal - artificial
• artefetal intelige (AI) - artificial intelligence (AI)
• artiste - artist
• Antartike - Antarctica
Artike - Arctic
Aruba - Aruba
as - like (as, similar)
Asia - Asia
astatin - astatine
• astrenaver - astronaut
ate - act (deed)
• ater - agent (doer, actor)
• ation - action
• ative - active
• ativate - activate (turn on)
• ature - work (product)
• deativate - deactivate (turn off)
• interate - interact
• interation - interaction
• interative - interactive
• reate - react
• reation - reaction
atake - attack (assault)
Athina - Athens
atom - atom
auguste - August
aurium - gold
Australia - Australia
• auter - author (auteur, independent actor)
• auterite - authority
• autemate - automatic
• autematize - automate
• autemovile - automobile (self-moving)
autum - autumn (fall)
axe - axis (axle)
aye - eye
aye glas - eyeglasses (spectacles)
Azere - Azerbaijan

B

bacheler - bachelor (bachelor’s degree)
badam - almond
bade - bad (unpleasant)
bage - bag
bagaje - luggage (baggage)
bagaje porter - porter
Bahama - Bahamas
Bahrain - Bahrain
bake - back (opposite of front)
bale - ball (dance)
• balete - ballet
banana - banana
bande - band (squad, group)
baner - flag (banner)
Bangle - Bangladesh
banke - bank (depository)
bar - bar (pub, beer house)
barium - barium
Barbados - Barbados
Barbuda - Barbuda
Barte - India
bate - strike (beat)
• batal - battle
• batalon - battalion
• debate - debate (argument, controversy, dispute)
• kombate - fight together (combat)
• kontrebate - counterstrike
baxe - box (cuboid container)
bay (bay bay) - bye (goodbye, bye-bye)
baze - base (foundation)
baze skole - primary school (elementary school, gradeschool)
• bazike - basic
bazar - market (bazaar)
bebe - baby (infant)
bede - bed
beke - bake
• beker - baker
• bekeria - bakery
bele - war
• belente - belligerent (warring)
• belike - bellicose (warlike)
• belikisme - bellicism
• rebele - rebel (fight back)
• rebeler - rebel
• rebelion - rebellion
Belarus - Belarus
Belgia - Belgium
Belize - Belize
benefete - benefit (do good)
benefetal - beneficial
Benin - Benin
berete - beret
berilium - beryllium
berkelium - berkelium
Bermuda - Bermuda
beste - excellent (best)
bey - be (passive voice marker)
bi - be
Bible - Bible
biche - bitch
bilete - slip of paper
biolojer - biolojist
biolojie - biology (study of organic life)
bir - beer
Bisau Ginea - Guinea-Bissau
bismute - bismuth
blake - black
bloge (webe loge) - blog (weblog)
blu - blue
bluze - blouse
bode - body
bode bilde - bodybuilding
bode bilder - bodybuilder
boi - boy
bol - ball
Bolgaria - Bulgaria
bombe - bomb
borium - bohrium
boron - boron
Bosnia - Bosnia and Herzegovina
bote - boat
botel - bottle
boxe - box (boxing)
• boxer - boxer
brate - brother
brauze - browse (look through)
• brauzer - browser
brave - brave (gallant, valiant)
Brazavile - Brazzaville
Brazavile Kongo - Congo (Brazzaville)
Brazil - Brazil
bromium - bromine
broshe - brush
brun - brown
Brunei - Brunei Darussalam
Budapesht - Budapest
buke - book
bule - bun (roll)
• burgan - bourgeois
burge - burger
Burkina - Burkina Faso
bus - bus
buton - button

C

cede - yield (cede, give up)
• excede - exceed (excess)
• koncede - concede (make a concession)
• recede - recede (give back)
cele - cell (biology)
• celelojie - cytology
cente - hundred (cent)
centimitre - centimeter
centre - center
• central - central
• koncentre - concentrate
Centrafrike - Central African Republic
cepe - catch (capture, take, seize)
• cepure - capture (seizure)
• acepe - accept
• decepe - snatch (remove)
• excepe - except (take out)
• intrecepe - intercept (snatch)
• koncepe - conceive (take together)
• koncepe - concept
• recepe - receive (take back)
• receper - receiver (receptor)
• recepion - reception
cerium - cerium
cerebre - brain
cerebral - cerebral
cerebral lobetome - lobotomy
cerebros - brainy
Ceres - Ceres (dwarf planet)
Cerna Gora - Montenegro
cese - get to
cesium - caesium
• acese - access
• precese - precede (go before)
• procese - process (proceed, go forward)
• procesor - processor
• recese - recede (retreat)
• recesion - recession
• sucese - succeed (go well, prosper)
Chade - Chad
chalenje - challenge (dare)
chanje - change (swap, trade)
• exchanje - exchange (trade off)
• interchanje - interchange (switch places)
chante - song
chaw - hi (ciao)
chay - tea (chai)
chefe - chief (boss)
Cheske - Czech Republic
Chile - Chile
chili - pepper (capsicum)
chize - cheese
chize burge - cheeseburger
chokolate - chocolate
Chosen - Korea
ci.tr. - this side
cientie - science
cientike - scientific
cientike fantase - science fiction
cientiste - scientist
cigare - cigar
cigarete - cigarette
cikle - cycle
• ricikle - recycle
cikle - bike (cycle)
• cikliste - cyclist
cite - city
• citan - citizen
citare - zither
cive - citizen
• civike - civic
• civile - civil
• civilade - civilized (civil)
• civilia - civilization
• civilian - civilian
• civepedie - civics
coy - greens
Cuana - Botswana

D

da - the (definite singular article)
da der - that
da hir - this
dame - damn
• damaje - damage
• kondame - condemn
dane - particle (grain, bullet)
dance - dance
Dane - Denmark
danje - danger
danke - thanks
darme - morality (ethics)
darmstadium - darmstadtium
darte - land (soil, earth, dirt)
daw - way (path)
• dawisme - Taoism (Daoism)
• dawiste - Taoist
de - they
dee - god (deity)
• deisme - theism
• deiste - theist
de’s - their (theirs)
• adee - adieu
• andeisme - atheism
• andeiste - atheist
debe - owe (should)
• debite - debt
• debiter - debtor (debitor)
Deimos - Deimos
dele - wait (delay)
• posdele - postpone
deme - the public
demekratie - democracy
den - day (the period between morning and evening)
Deniper - Dnieper
• densite - density
• kondense - condenser
dente - tooth
• dente brush - toothbrush
• dente paste - toothpaste
• dental - dental
desembre - December
• desene - draw (design, outline, pattern)
• desener - designer
dey - day (24 hours)
dey en mes - date (day and month)
di - the (definite plural article)
di der - those
di hir - these
dike - point (indicate)
• indike - indicate (point into)
• paradike - pattern (paradigm)
dinamite - dynamite
Dione - Dione
diske - disk
diskuse - discuss (converse)
diskusion - discussion (conversation)
disprosium - dysprosium
dite - dictate
• ditater - dictator
• ditaterie - dictatorship
• dition - saying (diction)
• ditionar - dictionary (collection of sayings)
• kontredite - contradict
• predite - predict (foretell)
• predition - prediction
Divehi - Maldives
Doiche - Germany
doke - prove (demonstrate, show, instruct)
• dokaje - doctrine (body of teachings)
• dokente - docent
• doker - doctor
• dokemen - document (paper used as a proof)
dolar - dollar
dome - home (domain)
• domike - domestic
• domine - dominate
• domination - domination (dominion)
• dominente - dominant
• dominer - dominator
• dominia - domain (dominion)
Dominika - Dominica
Dominikan Republike - Dominican Republic
dorse - back (of the body)
dotre - daughter
drame - act (perform in threatre)
drame - drama (theatrical play)
• drame skriber - playwright (dramatist)
• dramal - dramatic
• dramer - actor (threatrical actor)
du - do (perform, carry out)
du - to (marker for infinitive verbs)
due - two (2)
• dual - dual
• dual vokal - diphthong
• dualite - duality
• duple - double (twofold)
dubnium - dubnium
duce - lead (bring to)
• deduce - deduce (lead from)
• deducion - deduction
• induce - induce (lead in)
• intreduce - introduce (lead in)
• konduce - conduct (lead together)
• konducer - conductor (director)
• produce - produce (lead forward)
• producaje - product
• producer - producer
• posproduce - post-production
• reduce - reduce (take back)
dunia - world
dushe - shower (bathing ”rain”)

E

einsteinium - einsteinium
Eire - Ireland
eite - eight (8)
eletre - electricity
• eletre kar - electric car
• eletre poste (e-poste) - e-mail
eletre skuter - e-scooter
• eletrike - electric
• eletrelojie - electronics
• eletron - electron
eme - element (factor, the simplest unit)
en - and
en citre (ec.) - et cetera (etc.)
Enceladus - Enceladus
ende - end (finish)
Englande - England
entite - entity
erbium - erbium
Eris - Eris
Eritria - Eritrea
ese - exist
• esente - being
• esentie - essence
• esential - essential
• exese - exist (be out there)
• presente - present (now, current)
Espania - Spain
Espanish - Spanish
este - east (orient)
Estia - Estonia
Este Timor - East Timor (Timor-Leste)
Estiopia - Ethiopia
euro - euro (€)
Europe - Europe
Europan - European
Europan Unia - European Union (EU)
europium - europium
Europa - Europa (a moon)
evri - every (each)
ex - out
experaje - experience
expermen - experiment
• extre - extra
• extral - external
• extran - strange (foreign)
• extrime - extreme (outermost)
exemple - example (instance of)
ezmurude - emerald

F

face - face (front of head)
• facaje - facade (frontage)
facil - easy
• facilife - facilitate
• facilite - ease (facility)
• difacil - hard (difficult)
fain - fine (refined, not coarse)
faive - five (5)
fame - fame (good name)
• famos - famous
famile - family
fantase - imagination (fantasy, dream)
fantase leterature - fiction
fantasike - fantastic
farme - farm (cultivate)
• farmer - farmer
• farmia - farm (ranch)
favore - favor
favorade - favorite (preferred)
feble - weak (feeble)
februari - February
federal - federal
federia - federation
konfederia - confederation
fem - woman
• femal - female (feminine)
fere - deem (consider, regard, assign some quality to)
• disfere - differ (be different)
• infere - infer
• prefere - prefer (assess before)
• refere - refer (point back to)
ferium - iron
fermium - fermium
feste - party (celebration, festival)
• festive - festive (solemn)
fete - fact (concrete deed)
• feter - factor
• feteria - factory (plant)
• feture - feature (product of work)
• exfete - effect (impact, influence, affect)
• exfetive - effective (influential)
• infete - infect
• infetion - infection
• parafete - side-effect
• perfete - perfect (complete)
• figure - figure (representation)
Fiji - Fiji
Filipine - Philippines
Filistin - Palestinian Territory
filme - film
filsofe - philosophy
• filsofer - philosopher
• filsofie - philosophy
• konfirme - confirm
firme - company (firm)
fish - fish
fixe - fix (attach)
• fixation - fixation (attachment)
• afixe - affix
• posfixe - suffix (postfix)
• prefixe - prefix
flerovium - flerovium
flexe - bend (flex)
• flexable - flexible
cirkeflexe - bend around
deflexe - deflect (bend away)
reflexe - reflect (bend back)
reflexion - reflection
reflexor - reflector
• konflite - conflict (clash together)
flor - flower
fluor - fluorine
Fobos - Phobos
fol - mad (fool, crazy)
folie - madness (folly)
fone - phone (speech sound)
• foneme - phoneme
• fonelojie - phonology
for - four (4)
forke - fork
forme - form (shape)
• formaje - format (formation)
• formule - formula
• deforme - deform
• informe - inform (organize knowledge)
• informaje - information (organized knowledge)
• riforme - reform
francium - francium
France - France
France Giana - French Guiana
France krepe - crepe
Franse Polinesia - French Polynesia
frate - break (fracture)
fratable - fragile
fration - fraction
frature - fracture
frende - friend
fri - free (without)
from - from
frute - fruit
ful - full
• riful - refill
fume - fume
fun - fun (amusement)
fun parke - amusement park
funce - function (be in actino, operate)
• funcion - function (functioning)
fute - foot
fute bol - football (soccer)

G

Gabon - Gabon
gadolinium - gadolinium
Galia - Gaul
galium - gallium
galope - gallop
game - marry
• game fem - wife
• gamete - gamete
• gamie - marriage
• digame - divorce (unmarry)
• monegamie - monogamy
• polegamie - polygamy
Gambia - Gambia
Gana - Ghana
Ganda - Uganda
gandum - wheat
Ganimede - Ganymede
garde - guard (watch)
• gardia - guard
• regarde - regard
gas - gas
gate - gate
gel - girl
geme - game
gemer - player (gamer)
gene - beget (create, birth, breed, descend, generate, produce)
• generate - generate
• generation - generation
• ingenerate - ingenerate (produce within)
• rigenerate - regenerate (reproduce)
• genese - genesis
• genete - gene
• genetal - genetic
• genetelojie - genetics
• genelojie - genealogy (study of descent)
• genome - genome
• exgene - exogeneous
• ingene - endogeneous
Genzi - Guernsey
gere - war
• geral - military
• gerer - warrior (soldier)
• gerile - guerrilla war
• geriler - guerrilla
• antigeral - anti-war
• posgeral - post-war
• pregeral - pre-war
germanium - germanium
gide - guide (show the way)
gide buke - guide book
gider - guide
gitare - guitar
gitariste - guitarist
give - give
give fude - feed
globe - globe
• global - global (concerning the whole world)
global gere (GG) - world war (WW)
gol - goal (destination)
golfe - golf
golfe kurse - golf course
golfer - golfer
gone - corner (angle)
• diagonal - diagonal
goton - cotton
gow - go (move around)
grace - thank
• kongrace - congratulate (”congrats”)
Grenada - Grenada
grey - gray (grey)
grin - green
Guadelupe - Guadeloupe
Guam - Guam
Guatemala - Guatemala
gude - good
guru - teacher (guru)
Giana - Guyana

H

ha - huh? (pardon?)
hafnium - hafnium
haha - laugh
Haiti - Haiti
halele - praise (commend, exalt)
halo - hello (hi)
ham burge - hamburger
hame - hammer
hande - hand
hande bage - handbag
hapi - happy
harame - forbid (ban, disallow)
harte - heart
has - marker of the resultative aspect (have ~ed)
Haumea - Haumea
haus - house
have - have (possess)
Hawai - Hawaii
Hayake - Armenia
hazine - treasure
he - he or she (it)
he’s - his or her
helium - helium
Helene - Greece
helpe - help (aid, assist)
helpe mi! - Help me!
Helsinki - Helsinki
hepate - liver
hepatitis - hepatitis
hero - hero
• heroike - heroic
• heroine - heroine
heroin - heroin
heroiniste - heroinist (heroin addict)
Hese - Hesse
hesium - hassium
hey - hey (exclamation to get attention)
hidre - hydrogen
hidrargentium - mercury (quicksilver)
hihi - giggle
hindium - indium
Hiperion - Hyperion
histor - story
historie - history
hobi - hobby (passtime)
hoho - guffaw
hokey - hockey
holmium - holmium
Honduras - Honduras
Hong Gong - Hong Kong, SAR China
hope - hope (wish, desire)
hor - hour (60 minutes)
Horvatia - Croatia
hotel - hotel
hu - who
hu’s - whose
hume - humus (mold)
• human - human being
• humanisme - humanism
• humaniste - humanist
• humanoide - humanoid
• exhume - exhume
• inhume - bury (inter, inhume)
hunde - hundred

I

idea - idea (concept)
• ideal - ideal (conceptual)
• idealisme - idealism
idente - the same
• identife - identify
• identike - identical
• identite - identity
if - if
if no - unless
impere - reign (rule as an emperor)
• imperer - emperor
• imperial - Imperial
• imperialisme - imperialism
• imperialiste - imperialist
• imperia - empire
in - in
in fete - in fact
in sam tem - at the same time (while)
• intral - internal (intrinsic)
Indonesia - Indonesia
injener - engineer
injenie - engineering
insete - insect
intelige - intelligence (intellect)
• inteligable - intelligible
• inteligal - intellectual
• inteligente - intelligent (smart)
• inteligentie - intelligentsia
Internet - Internet
interwebe - internet
Io - Io
iodium - iodine
Irake - Iraq
Iran - Iran
iridium - iridium
is - marker of the progressive aspect (be ~ing)
Islande - Iceland
isme - ideologia (doctrine, principle, -ism)
Israel - Israel
ite - go
• exite - exit (go out)
• inite - init (go in)
• inital - initial
• initate - initiate
Italia - Italy
itis - inflammation (-itis)

J

jakete - jacket
Jamaika - Jamaica
jan - meditate (ponder)
jangle - jungle
januari - January
jawabe - answer (reply, response)
Jayer - Algeria
jaze - jazz
jele - prison (jail)
jense - sex (gender)
Jersi - Jersey
jeste linguaje - sign language
jete - thrust (throw, cast)
• ajetive - adjective
• exjete - eject (throw out)
• injete - inject (thrust in)
• projete - project (plan ahead)
• rejete - reject (throw back)
• sujete - subject
Jibraltar - Gibraltar
Jibuti - Djibouti
jihade - struggle (strife, effort, exert, toil)
• jihadisme - jihadism
• jihadiste - jihadist (mujahid)
jinje - ginger
jira - cumin (jeera)
jobe - job (task, assignment)
Jove - Jupiter
jovedi - Thursday
joven - young (youth)
joy - joy (enjoy)
junior mide skole - junior high school
june - June
Jungo - China
Juno - Juno (dwarf planet)
junte - joint (join)
junte lexe - conjunction
• juntion - junction
• junture - juncture (junction, intersection)
junte (of oste) - joint (connection of bones)
jus - juice
juste - exact (accurate, precise; just)
• justite - precision (exactness, accuracy)
• ajuste - adjust (make exact)

K

Kabu Verde - Cabo Verde (Cape Verde)
kadmium - cadmium
kafe - coffee
kaiser - kaiser (czar)
kakau - cocoa
kalium - potassium
Kalale - Greenland
kalende - calendar
kalifornium - californium
Kalisto - Callisto
kalkium - calcium (Ca)
Kambudia - Cambodia
Kamerun - Cameroon
kamize - shirt
kampe - camp
Kamri - Wales (Cambria)
kan - can (be able)
Kanada - Canada
kanale - ditch (canal, channel, dyke, trench)
kanceler - chancellor
kanceleria - chancellery
kangaru - kangaroo
kape - cape (cloak)
• exkape - escape (flee, run away)
• exkapisme - escapism
kar - car (cart, carriage, wagon, automobile)
karakte - character (demeanor, temper)
karbe - carbon (coal)
karde - card
Kartulia - Georgia (Republic of Georgia)
karvan - caravan (convoy)
karwi - caraway
kashe - cash register (till)
kasher - cashier
kasheria - cash desk (cashier’s desk)
kate - cut
kave - dig
• exkave - dig out (excavate)
Kazakhe - Kazakhstan
Keiman - Cayman Islands
Kenya - Kenya
khan - khan
Khartum - Khartoum
kide - child (kid)
kime - substance (physical material from which something is made)
kimeme - chemical element
• kimike - chemical
• kimelojer - chemist
• kimelojie (kimie) - chemistry
Kinshasa - Kinshasa
Kinshasa Kongo - Congo Kinshasa
kioske - kiosk
Kipris - Cyprus
Kirgizia - Kyrgyzstan
Kiribati - Kiribati
kis - kiss
kiwi - kiwi
klare - clear (easy to see through)
• klarife - clarify
• klarite - clarity
klarvide - clairvoyance
klarvider - clairvoyant
klase - class
• klasife - classify (categorize)
• klasike - classic
klime - climate
• klime chanje - climate change
• klimelojer - climatologist
• klimelojie - climatology
klone - clone (replica)
klor - chlorine
klube - club
kluze - close (shut)
• exkluze - exclude
• inkluze - include (enclose)
• inkluzive - inclusive
• konkluze - conclude (close together)
kobalte - cobalt
kode - code (cipher, crypt)
• dikode - decode (decipher, decrypt)
koka - coca
Koka Kola - Coca-Cola (coke)
koka te - coca tea
koko - chicken
koko ove - chicken egg
kola - cola nut (kola)
Kolombia - Colombia
kolone - settle (colonize)
• kolonia - colony (settlement)
• kolonial - colonial
• kolonisme - colonialism
• koloniste - colonialist
• poskolonial - postcolonial
kolor - color
kolor skale - spectrum (color range)
kolun - column (pillar, pole, post)
• kolunar - colonnade
kom - come
Komoro - Comoros
kompane - accompany
kompaner - companion
kompania - company (party)
komun - common
• kommunike - communicate
• komuniste - communist
• komunite - community
kontre - against (counter)
kontral - contrary
Konakri Ginia - Guinea
koncerte - concert
konsume - consume (use up)
konsumer - consumer
konsumion - consumption
konsumisme (konsumerisme) - consumerism
kontate - contact
kontinente - continent
• interkontinental - intercontinental
kontinu - continue (keep on doing)
• kontinuite - continuity
inkontre - encounter
kontrole - check (control, examine, inspect, verify)
kopernikium - copernicium
kore - core (’heart’, kernel, nucleus)
• koraje - guts (courageᶠ)
• korajive - encouraging (incentive)
• korajos - courageous
korne - horn
korone - crown
korone virus - corona virus
kosme - space (cosmos)
• kosmal - cosmic
kosmenaute - cosmonaut
Kosovo - Kosovo
koste - cost (price)
Kosta Rika - Costa Rica
kote - coat
Kotedivuar - Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
kotribu - contribute
kovre - cover (conceal)
• dikovre - discover (detect)
krede - believe (trust, credit)
• ankredable - incredible (unbelievable)
krede karde - credit card
kreme - cream
krepe - pancake
kreperia - crêperie
krese - grow (increase)
• dikrese - decrease (shrink)
Kriste - Christ
• Kristie - Christianity
• Kristia - Christendom
• kristian - Christian
kriton - krypton
kritike - critique (criticism)
kritiker - critic
krizal - critical
krize - crisis
kromium - chromium
krus - cross
krus gere - crusade
kualite - quality
kuantite - quantity (amount)
Kuba - Cuba
kueste - ask (question)
kuestion - question
kuku - cuckoo
kulture - culture
kupe - cup (glass, mug, drinking vessel)
kupre - copper
kure - care (cure)
kurium - curium
• ankurable - incurable
Kuran - Quran (Koran)
kurse - course (trajectory, itinerary)
Kuwaite - Kuwait
kuze - blame (charge, case, lawsuit)
• akuze - accuse (blame, charge)
• akuzative - accusative
• exkuze - excuse (discharge, forgive)

L

Lagos - Lagos
lake - lake
lande - land (country)
Lanka - Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
lantan - lanthanum
larje - wide (broad, large, extensive)
laste - last (most recent)
laste dei - yesterday
laste yer - last year
Latvia - Latvia
Lau - Laos
lawrencium - lawrencium
lece - allow (let, permit)
• lecente - license (permission)
lefte - left (left hand side)
lerne - learn
lerne kurse - course (learning program)
lete - read
• leter - reader
• leterature - literature
• leture - lecture
• leture - reading
letre - letter (epistle)
lexe - word
• lexe buke - dictionary (wordbook, lexicon)
• lexe liste - word list
• lexeme - lexeme
• lexike - lexicon (vocabulary)
Libia - Libya
Libanun - Lebanon
Liberia - Liberia
lide - lead
• lider - head (leader)
• meslide - mislead (deceive)
• meslidive - misleading (deceptive)
Lietuva - Lithuania
lige - league
• alige - ally
limon - lemon
• limonaje - lemonade
lingue - tongue
• linguaje - language
linke - link (connection)
liste - list (listing, catalogue)
litium - lithium
lite - small (little)
Litenshtein - Liechtenstein
liter - letter (character, written symbol)
litre - litre (liter)
live - live (life, alive)
livermorium - livermorium
lobe - lobe
loge - speak (talk)
• logegram - logogram (logo)
• logepedie - logopedics
• dialoge - conversation (dialog, discussion, talk)
logu - record (register, log)
loke - place (location)
• lokal - local
• lokate - locate
aloke - allocate
long - long (lengthy)
lote - lot (batch)
love - love (like)
• lover - lover
lune - moon
lunedi - Monday
lute - rob (loot, plunder, pillage, ransack)
lutecium - lutetium
Luxemburge - Luxembourg
luze - lose (fail)
• luzer - loser

M

ma - mom (mama)
• matre - mother
• matria - motherland
Madagasi - Madagascar
Madyar - Hungary
magnesium - magnesium
Magribe - Morocco
maidan - field (square, plaza, maidan)
make - make (manufacture)
Makau - Macao
Makemake - Makemake
Malaisia - Malaysia
Malawi - Malawi
Mali - Mali
Malta - Malta
Malvinas - Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
mame - breast (boob, tit)
• mamal - mammal
• mamalia - mammals
man - man
manal - male (masculine)
mangan - manganese
mango - mango
Manin - Isle of Man
mantu - dumpling (stuffed bun)
manu - hand-made
• manaje - manage (handle)
• manajer - manager
manual - manual
manufete - manufacture (make by hand)
manuskribaje - manuscript
manutene - maintain (support, hold with hands)
• mesmanaje - mismanage
mape - map
marche - walk (march)
marke - mark (trace)
• rimarke - remark (mark again)
Marshal - Marshall Islands
marte - March
Marte - Mars
martedi - Tuesday
masala - spice (seasoning)
mashine - machine (apparatus)
master - master (master’s degree)
master of ciencie (MC) - Master of Science
master of filsofie (MF) - Master of Philosophy
master of injenie (MI) - Master of Engineering
master of teknolojie (MT) - Master of Technology
master or arte (MA) - Master of Arts
mate - maté
mate te - maté tea
mature - mature (ripe, adult)
maxim - most (maximally)
maximal - maximal
maxime - maximum
maximize - maximise
may - May
Mayote - Mayotte
• paramedike - paramedic
medikie - medicine (medical discipline)
medikal - medical
mei bi - maybe (perhaps)
meitnerium - meitnerium
memo - note (memo, memorandum, minute)
memore - memory (recollection)
mene - meaning (import, purpose, significance)
• da mene of live - the meaning of life
mendelevium - mendelevium
meninge - meninx (meninges)
meningitis - meningitis
mente - mind (ability for consciousness, perception and thinking)
• mental - mental
• demente - demented (out of one’s mind)
menu - menu
Merkur - Mercury
merkurdi - Wednesday
• parametre - parameter
mes - month
mes - mess (blunder)
metal - metal
metode - method (means, procedure)
metre - measure
metrer - meter (measuring instrument)
Mexiko - Mexico
mey - may (might)
mi (me)
mi’s - my (mine)
mide - middle
mide noche - midnight
mide skole - secondary school
migre - move (migrate, relocate)
• migrion - migration (moving)
• exmigre - emigrate (move out)
• inmigre - immigrate (move in)
Mikronesia - Micronesia
milion - million
milke - milk
Mimas - Mimas
minim - least (minimally)
• minimal - minimal
• minimalisme - minimalism
• minime - minimum
• minimize - minimise
ministre - administer
• ministration - administration
• ministrer - minister (politician in the government)
• ministria - ministry
minute - minute (60 seconds)
mire - wonder
• mirable - wonderfularvel), mirable
• miraje - mirage
• mirekul - miracle
• mirekulos - miraculous
• miror - mirror
• amire - admire
Miranda - Miranda
mise - send
• misaje - message
• exmise - emit
• mision - mission (sending)
• misioner - missionary
• konmise - commit
• konmisia - commission (committee)
• trasmise - transmit
• trasmiser - transmitter
• trasmision - transmission
Misre - Egypt
mitre - metre (meter)
mixe - mix (stir)
• mixure - mixture
• konmode - comfortable (convenient, commodious)
• konmodite - convenience (comfort, commodity)
• akonmode - accommodate
Moldova - Moldova
moliden - molybdenum
momente - moment (while, short time)
mone - money (currency)
• mone bilete - banknote
• monete - coin
Monako - Monaco
Mongolia - Mongolia
monte - mountain (mount, hill)
montaner - mountaineer
montete - hill
mor - more
mor gude - better
Moris - Mauritius
morte - dead (deceased)
• mortal - mortal
• mortife - kill
• posmortal - post mortem
moskvium - moscovium
Moskva - Moscow
mote - move (change place, transport)
• moter - engine (motor)
• motion - motion
• motive - motive
motor skuter - motor scooter
move - move (change position)
• movable - movable
• movile - mobile
• movile telefon - mobile phone
Mozambike - Mozambique
muche - much (a lot)
multi - many
• multiple - multiple
Muritania - Mauritania
mus - must (have to)
muskul - muscle
muzike - music
muziker - musician (player)
mwa - smack (mwah, smooch)
Myanma - Myanmar (Burma)

N

nace - folk
• nacia - nation
• nacial - national
• nacial socialisme - national socialism
• nacianite - nationality
• internacial - international
Naijir.ia - Nigeria
nain - nine (9)
name - name
Namibia - Namibia
nase - nose
nasal - nasal
nate - be born
• nation - birth
• nature - nature
• posnatal - postnatal
• prenatal - prenatal
• rinate - rebirth (renaissance)
natre - sodium
Nauru - Nauru
naw - now
Nederlande - Netherlands
nefre - kidney
nefritis - nephritis
nege - negate
• negative - negative
• denege - deny (refuse, turn away)
nekre - dead (deceised)
• nekreliste - necrology (listing of people who have died)
• nekreloge - obituary (necrology)
• nekretome - autopsy (necrotomy)
neodimium - neodymium
neon - neon
Nepal - Nepal
neptunium - neptunium
Neptune - Neptune
Nevis - Nevis
nexe - nexus
• anexe - annex
• konnexe - connect (join together)
• konnexion - connection
nexte - next
nexte dei - tomorrow
nexte yer - next year
nihonium - nihonium
Nijer - Niger
Nikaragua - Nicaragua
nikel - nickel
niobium - niobium
Nipon - Japan
Nistre - Dniester
Transnistria - Transnistria
nitre - nitrogen
Niwe - Niue
no - no (not)
no ting - nothing
no un or otre - neither
no won - no-one (nobody)
no wori - don’t worry
nobelium - nobelium
noce pote - chamber pot
noche - night
noche mode - night mode
nonsence - nonsense
Norfolke - Norfolk Island
Norge - Norway
norme - norm (standard)
• normal - normal
• normalite - normalcy (normality)
• annormal - abnormal
• paranormal - paranormal
norte - north
Norte Cosen - North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea)
Norte Eire - Northern Ireland
Norte Kipris - Northen Cyprus
Norte Makedonia - Republic of North Macedonia
Norte Mariana - Northern Mariana Islands
Norte Somali - Somaliland
• nosisme - Gnosticism
• nosiste - Gnostic
• annose - ignore
• annosente - ignorant
• annosisme - agnosticism
• annosiste - agnostic
• dianose - diagnosis
• konnose - recognize (associate with)
• konnosente - aware (cognizant, conscient)
• konnosion - cognition
• rikonnose - recognize
• rikonnosion - recognition
• pronose - prognosis
note - note (observation, remark)
• anote - annotation (comment, side note)
• denote - denote
• konnote - connotate
novembre - November
now - know (recognize)
nowaje - knowledge
numbe - number (count)
nunce - announce (declare)
• denunce - denounce (announce the termination of)
• pronunce - pronounce (proclaim, promulgate)
• renunce - renounce (decline, reject)
nuve - new (recent)
• nuvaje - novelty (new product)
• nuvite - novelty (newness)
Nuve Kaledonia - New Caledonia
Nuve Zilande - New Zealand

O

Oberon - Oberon
ofice - office (position, post)
• oficer - officer
• oficia - office (bureau)
oganeson - oganesson
ojete - object
• ojetive - objective
oke - OK (approval, agreement, acceptance)
Olande - Aland Islands
Oman - Oman
on - about
open - open (not closed)
opine - opine (think)
opinion - opinion (view)
or - or
oranje - orange (fruit)
oranje kolor - orange (color)
orige - origin (source)
• origal - original
orige punte - origin (zero point in coordinate system)
Oromo - Oromia
osmium - osmium
oste - bone
osteporosite - osteoporosis
Ostria - Austria
ote - opt (prefer, choose)
• otime - optimum
• otimal - optimal
• otimisme - optimism
• otimiste - optimist
• otion - option (preference)
• otional - optional
otobre - October
otre - other
• otrife - alter
• otrisme - altruism
ove - egg
• oval - oval (elliptic)
ove cele - ovum (egg cell)
oxe - oxygen

P

pa - dad (papa)
• patre - father
• patria - fatherland
• expatrian - expatriate
• konpatrian - compatriot (fellow citizen)
• repatriate - repatriate
pace - peace
pacifisme - pacifism
pacifiste - pacifist
paje - page (side of a leaf of a book)
pakaje - package
pake - pack (parcel)
pakete - packet
paladium - palladium
Palas - Pallas (dwarf planet)
Palau - Palau
pan- - pan- (concerning all)
panafrikan - pan-African
panamerikan - pan-American
panasian - pan-Asian
pandemie - pandemic
paneuropan - pan-European
Panglobish - Panglobish
panorame - panorama
Panama - Panama
pandite - expert (pundit)
panir - quark (paneer)
pankreas - pancreas
pante - pants (trousers)
pape - pap (soft food)
papaya - papaya
papir - paper
Papua Nuve Ginea - Papua New Guinea
• konpare - compare
para - beside (alongside, parallel)’
• paral - parallel
Paraguay - Paraguay
Paris - Paris
parke - park (garden)
parte - part (component)
• partaner - partner
• partanerie - partnership
• partecepe - participate
• parteceper - participant
• partie - party (fellowship)
• partekul - particle
• partekulal - particular
• departure - departure
paste - paste
pate - disease
• pategene - pathogen
• patelojie - pathology
patate - potato
paunde - pound (£)
pauze - pause (break)
• repauze - rest (repose)
• repauze in pace - rest in peace (RIP)
payace - clown
pede - educate (bring up, raise)
• pedecentriste - pedocentrist
• pedefilie - pedophilia
• pedefobie - pedophobia
• pedie - education (upbringing)
pele - drive (operate a vehicle)
• apele - appeal (drive to oneself)
• depele - drive away
• dispele - dispel (disperse, drive asunder)
• expele - expel (drive out)
• inpele - impel (drive into)
• konpele - drive together
• propele - propel (drive forward)
• propelor - propeller
• repele - repel (drive back)
pene - punishment (penalty)
penal kike - penalty kick
pepe - pepper (peppercorn)
person - person (character, figure)
personaje - character in a story
personal - personal
personalite - personality
Peru - Peru
petre - rock
petrife - petrify
pey fri - free (free of charge, gratuitous)
pey - pay
• konpile - compile (pile up together)
• konpiler - compiler
pirame - pyramid
Pitkerne - Pitcairn
piza - pizza
pizeria - pizzeria
plan - plan
platinium - platinum
pley - play (play back)
pleyer (media pleyer) - player (media player)
plis - please
ploze - clap
plozable - plausible (praiseworthy)
• aploze - applaude
• exploze - explode (blow up)
• explozive - explosive
• inploze - implode
plumbe - lead
plus - add (plus)
plusion - addition
Pluto - Pluto
plutonium - plutonium
polonium - polonium
policer - police officer
policie - police (law enforcement organization)
politike - politics
Polske - Poland
popula - people (population)
• populal - popular
• populate - populate
pore - pore
• poros - porous
porte - carry (bear)
• porter - bearer (carrier)
• reporte - report (bring back news)
• reporter - reporter
• suporte - support (carry from below)
• trasporte - transport
• trasportion - transportation
Porto Riko - Puerto Rico
Portugal - Portugal
pospor - phosphorus
poste - mail (post)
postoficia - post office
pote - pot
poze - put (set, place, pose)
• pozia - position
• expose - expose
• inpoze - put in (impose)
• konpozaje - component
• pospoze - postposition
• prepoze - preposition
• propoze - propose (put forth)
• supoze - suppose (put under)
prazedimium - praseodymium
prime - prime (foremost)
primal - primary (primal)
prese - press
• deprese - depress (push away)
• exprese - express (push out)
• suprese - suppress (press down)
proche - close (near)
• aproche - approach (get close, approximate)
prometium - promethium
protacinium - protactinium
purpur - purple
pute - put (arrange, set into a certain relation, state or condition)
• expute - output
• inpute - input
• konpute - compute (put data together)
• konputer - computer
Qatar - Qatar

R

rade - ray
• radio - radio
• radion - radiation
radium - radium
radon - radon
radike - root
• radikal - radical (going to the roots)
• exradike - eradicate (uproot)
• inradike - radicate (irradicate, root deeply)
raite - right (right hand side)
Ramazan - Ramadan
rase - race (ethnicity, breed)
rasisme - racism
rasiste - racist
raze - shave (scrape, raze)
• razor - razor (shaving instrument)
razon - reason (judgement)
• razonal - rational
re - re (thing, matter, topic)
• real - real (genuine)
• realisme - realism
• realiste - realist
• realite - reality
• realite televizion - reality television
• realize - realize (make real)
• anreal - unreal
Rea - Rhea
rede - red
reflete - reflect (bend back)
regule - regulate (adjust, control)
rekueste - request (ask)
renium - rhenium
rentgenium - roentgenium
reste - rest (stay, remain)
• areste - arrest
restoran - restaurant
Reunion - Réunion
rezulte - result (outcome)
Rhein - Rhine
Rhone - Rhone (a river in France and Switzerland)
riche - rich
riksha - rickshaw
rime - rhyme (verse)
riske - risk (threat)
rive - river (stream)
rize - rice
robote - robot
rodium - rhodium
rokete - rocket
Roma - Rome
Romania - Romania
rose - dew
rote - wheel
• rotate - rotate (spin, turn, revolve)
• rotation - rotation
roze - rose
roze kolor - pink
Ruanda - Rwanda
rubidium - rubidium
rule - roll
• rulete - roulette
Rundi - Burundi
Rus krepe - blini
Rus kaiser - tsar (czar)
rus krepe - blini
Rusia - Russia
Rusian - Russian
rusium - ruthenium
rute - route
ruterfordium - rutherfordium

S

sabun - soap
safare - travel (journey, voyage)
sagu - sago palm
Sahara Republike - Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
sahil - coast (shore)
salade - salad
salam - greeting (regards)
salari - salary (wages)
Salone - Sierra Leone
salve - save (rescue, salvage)
salver - savior (rescuer)
Salvador - El Salvador
sam - same (similar)
samarium - samarium
Samoa - Samoa
sane - healthy (sane, sound)
• sanal (sanital) - sanitary (pertaining to health)
• sanife - heal (cure)
• sanite - health (sanity)
• ansane - unhealthy (insane)
sanduke - chest (trunk, coffer)
sante - holy (sacred, saint)
Sante Helena - Saint Helena
Sante Kice - Saint Kitts
Sante Kice en Nevis - Saint Kitts and Nevis
Sante Lucia - Saint Lucia
Sante Marino - San Marino
Sante Tome en Principe - Sao Tome and Principe
Sante Vinsente en Grenadine - Saint Vincent and Grenadines
sante gere - holy war
saturdi - Saturday
Saturne - Saturn
Saudi Arabia - Saudi Arabia
save - savvy (understand, know how)
• sekurentie - insurance
selenium - selenium
seme - meaning (referent of a word, expression or symbol)
• sememe - sememe
• semeforer - semaphore
• semelojie - semantics
sene - old person (senex)
• senache - senile (deteriorated by old age)
• senater - senator
• senatia - senate (council of elders)
• senile - senile
senior - senior (older)
senior mide skole - senior high school
sence - sense (reason)
Senegal - Senegal
sense - sense (method of perception)
Serbia - Serbia
serpe - snake (serpent)
serve - serve
• server - servant (waiter)
Seshel - Seychelles
sete - cut off
• setia - sect (cult)
• setian - sectarian (cultist)
• setion - section (sector)
setembre - September
seven - seven (7)
sexe - sex (sexual arousal)
sey - say
shal - should (shall)
Shampan vine - champagne
shampu - shampoo (liquid soap)
sharke - shark
shawe - shower (rainshower)
shifu - sensei (shifu, martial arts master)
shish - quiet (silent, still, shh)
Shkiperia - Albania
shofer - chauffeur (driver)
shope - buy (purchase)
shope centre - shopping centre
shope haus - store (shop)
shopion - shopping
show - show (display, exhibit)
si - see (look, view, watch)
si yu! - see you (goodbye)
siborgium - seaborgium
• presidente - president (chairman)
silicium - silicon
simbole - symbol (emblem)
• simbolike - symbolic (emblematic)
• simbolisme - symbolism
simple - simple (uncomplicated)
• simplite - simplicity
sine - sign (signal, indication)
• sinal - signal
• sinife - signify (turn into a sign, give a meaning)
• sinifike - significant
• asine - assign (ascribe, attribute)
• desine - designate (mark out)
• disine - resign (unsign)
Singapur - Singapore
siste - sister
site - feed on
• parasite - parasite
sixe - six (6)
skale - scale (range, spectrum)
skandium - scandium
ski - ski
ski - skiing
skole - school (institution)
Skotia - Scotland
skribe - writing (script, scripture)
• skribaje - script
• skriber - writer (scribe)
• deskribe - describe (write about)
• suskribe - signature (autograph name)
• transkribe - transcribe (convert script)
skribe mashine - typewriter
skute - scoot (ride a scooter, move while sitting)
• skuter - scooter
Slovakia - Slovakia
Slovenia - Slovenia
so - so (therefore)
• social - social
• social media - social media
• socialisme - socialism
• socialiste - socialist
• societe - society (association)
socia - society (community)
sofa - sofa (couch)
sole - sun
sole sistem - solar system
soledi - Sunday
solo un - single (only)
Solomon - Solomon Islands
som - some (indefinite quantity or number)
Somali - Somalia
some - summer
some kampe - summer camp
sone - sound (what can be heard)
• sonike - sonic
• konsone - consonant
• resone - resonate
• resonente - resonant (sonorant)
Soto - Lesotho
spece - species
• specal - especially
• specal - special
• specife - specify
• specifike - specific
spete - view (specate)
speter - viewer (spectator)
• spetekul - spectacle
• spetemen - specimen
• aspete - aspect
• exspete - expect
• inspete - inspect
• suspete - suspect (look down on)
spire - breath
• exspire - exhale
• inspire - breath in
• respire - breathing (respiration)
• responde - answer (respond)
sporte - sport (athletics)
• sportal - athletic
• sporter - athlete (sportsman)
stadia - stadium (arena)
stanium - tin
stare - star
stibium - antimony
strontium - strontium
strute - building
• struture - structure
• strutural - structural
• distrute - destroy (destruct)
• instrute - build in (instruct)
• infrastrutur - infrastructure
• konstrute - construct (build)
• konstrution - construction
stude - learn (study)
• studente - learner (student)
• studia - study room
stupide - stupid
Sudan - Sudan
sude - south
Sude Afrike - South Africa
Sude Cosen - South Korea (Republic of Korea)
Sude Sudan - South Sudan
sukar - sugar
sulfe - sulfur (brimstone)
sume - sum (total)
Suomi (Finlande) - Finland
supe - soup
Suria - Syria
Suriname - Suriname
suvenir - souvenir
Svalbarde - Svalbard
Sveria - Sweden
Swati - Eswatini (Swaziland)
Swice - Switzerland

T

tabake - tobacco
tabakiste - smoker
Taiwan - Taiwan (Republic of China)
Tajike - Tajikistan
talium - thallium
tango - tango
tantalium - tantalum
Tanzania - Tanzania
tate - touch (be in contact)
• tatal - tactile (tangible)
tatu - tattoo
taun - town
tauzen - thousand
taxi - taxi (cab)
te - herbal tea
teatre - theater (theatre)
• teatral - theatrical
tekne - technique (technology)
teknetium - technetium
• teknekratie - technocracy
• teknelojie - technology (study of techniques)
telefone - telephone
teleporte - teleport
teleportation - taleportation
televize - televise (broadcast by television)
televizer - television (telly, tube)
televizion - television media
telurium - tellurium
tem (tempe) - time (quantity of time)
ten - ten
tene - hold (grasp)
• kontene - contain (hold together)
• kontener - container
• retene - retain (hold back)
• sutene - sustain (hold from below)
• sutener - souteneur (pimp)
tenesium - tennessine
tenis - tennis
tere - scare (frighten)
• terade - scared (frightened)
• terife - terrify
• terure - terror
• terurisme - terrorism
• kontre-terurisme - counter-terrorism (antiterrorism)
• teruriste - terrorist
• detere - deter (scare away)
terbium - terbium
teste - test (prove, witness, evidence)
• testemen - testimony (testament, witness)
• ateste - attest (affirm)
• proteste - protest (affirm, testify for)
• reteste - protest (object)
Tetis - Tethys
texte - text
textal - textual
texte misaje - text message (SMS)
tiche - teach
• ticher - teacher (educator)
tikete - ticket
tikete kasheria - ticket office
time - team
Timor - Timor
ting - thing
tinke - think
• tinker - thinker
Titan - Titan
titanium - titanium
Titania - Titania
to - to
Togo - Togo
tome - split (dissect)
• tomegrafe - tomogram
• tomegrafie - tomography
• antomable - indivisible
• dutome - dichotomy
• tritome - trichotomy
tomate - tomato
tone - tone (note, pitch, shade)
• tonal - tonal
• tonation - intonation
Tonga - Tonga
torium - thorium
torne - turn (twist, change direction)
towel - towel
toxe - poison (toxin, venom)
toy - toy
trate - pull (draw)
• trator - tractor
• atrate - attract
• atrative - attractive
• distrate - distract (pull apart)
• extrate - extract (pull out)
• kontrate - agreement (treaty, contract)
trete - treat (deal with)
• tretaje - treatise (tractate)
tri - three (3)
• trigone - triangle
• trigonemetrie - trigonometry
• trite - trinity (threeness)
• trilogie - trilogy
• triple - triple (threefold)
tribal - tribal
tribe - tribe
tribu - bestow (confer)
Trinidade en Tobago - Trinidad and Tobago
Triton - Triton
tu - you (singular)
tu’s - your
tube - tube (pipe)
tulium - thulium
tule - tool (instrument)
Tunisia - Tunisia
ture - tour (excursion, trip)
ture gider - tour guide
turisme - tourism
turiste - tourist
• reture - return
Turke - Turkey
Turkomen - Turkmenistan
turne - turn (shift, duty)
Tuvalu - Tuvalu

U

Ukrayina - Ukraine
Umbriel - Umbriel
un lote of - a lot of
un or otre - either (one or the other)
un - a (an)
un - one (1)
• unife - unite (unify)
• unite - unity (oneness)
universe - universe (world)
• universal - universal
uranium - uranium
Urane - Uranus
Urdun - Jordan
Uruguay - Uruguay
USA - United States of America (USA)
Uzbeke - Uzbekistan

V

vagine - vagina
vaginitis - vaginitis
valce - waltz
vale - valley
vampir - vampire
vanadium - vanadium
Vanuatu - Vanuatu
Vatikan - Holy See (Vatican City State)
veje - vegetable
vele - veil
• divele - unveil (reveal, uncover)
• invelaje - envelope (enfold)
vene - come
• avene - advent
• cirkevene - get around (avoid, circumvent)
• exvene - come out (happen, event)
• invene - invent
• intervene - intervene (come between)
• konvene - convene (come together)
• pervene - reach (arrive)
• prevene - prevent (stop, keep from, be in the way of)
• revene - come back (return)
• suvene - subvene
venerdi - Friday
Venezuela - Venezuela
vente - chance (accident, risk)
• venture - venture (risky or daring undertaking)
• aventure - adventure
• aventurer - adventurer
Venus - Venus
vere - true
• verite - truth
veranda - veranda (terrace, porch)
vermute - vermouth
verse - turn toward (direct, versus)
• version - version
• deverse - avert
• disverse - diverse
• konverse - converse (turn back and forth)
• kontreversite - controversy
• perverse - pervert (twist; perverse)
• reverse - reverse (direct back, backwards)
Vesta - Vesta (dwarf planet)
vie - way (road)
• deviate - deviate (go off course)
vide - view (look at)
• vidion - vision (sight)
• exvidable - obvious (evident)
• previde - foresee (anticipate, preview)
• rivide - revise (look over again)
Viete - Viet Nam
vile - farmhouse (villa)
• vilaje - village
vine - wine
• vineria - winery
virus - virus
vite - life
• vitable - viable
• vital - vital (lifely)
• vitalite - vitality
vitamin - vitamin
• revite - revive (bring back to life)
• rivite - live again
• suprevite - survive
vize - display (show)
• vizer - monitor (display)
• vizion - vision (apparition)
• vizioner - visionary
vizite - visit
viziter - visitor (guest)
voke - call (voice; summon)
• vokablar - vocabulary
• vokable - term (vocable)
• vokal - vocal
• vokal son - vowel
• vokation - vocation
• vokative kasu - vocative case
• exvoke - evoke (call out)
• invoke - invoke
• provoke - provoke
• revoke - revoke (call back)
volfram - tungsten (wolfram)
volte - volt (V)
vote - vote (ballot)
vote bilete - ballot (voting slip)

W

wa - what
wa wei - how
wafel - waffle
Walis en Futuna - Wallis and Futuna Islands
wan - want (desire)
was - marker of the experiential aspect (~ed)
wase - oasis
washe - wash
washe mashine - washing machine
Washington - Washington DC
wate - water
wate skuter - water scooter
webe - web (network)
webe paje - web page
wer - where
werke - work (job)
werker - worker
weste - west
wi - we (us)
wi’s - our (ours)
wike - week
wikende - weekend
wil - marker of the future aspect (will)
win - win (succeed, defeat)
winer - winner
windo - window
winte - winter
wiski - whisky (whiskey)
wite - white
wori - worry (anxiety, concern)

X

xenon - xenon

Y

yam - eat (food)
Yapetus - Iapetus
yarde - yard (3 feet)
ye - yes (yeah)
yelow - yellow
yer - year
yeral - annual (yearly)
Yesu - Jesus
yezi - coco
yogurte - yogurt
yu - you all
yu’s - your
yuli - July
Yulius Kaiser - Julius Caesar
yumor - humor (amusement)
yumoriste - humoriste
yuste - right (just, fair)
• yustite - justice (fairness)
• yustitia - court (justice)
• anyuste - unjust (unfair)
yuste pley - fair play
yutrebium - ytterbium
yutrium - yttrium

Z

Zambia - Zambia
zebra - zebra
zero - zero
zerve - store (spare, save for later)
• konzerve - conserve
• konzervative - conservative
• prezerve - preserve (store beforehand)
• rezerve - reserve
• rezervia - reservation (tract of land)
zigure - ziggurat
Zimbabwe - Zimbabwe
zinke - zinc
zipe - zip up
• ziper - zipper
zirkonium - zirconium
zombe - zombie