Word Derivation

Forming a new word from an existing word is called word derivation. Often a new word is formed by adding a prefix or suffix, such as un- or -ness. For example, unhappy and happiness derive from the root word happy.

Zero Derivation

Zero derivation means conversion of a word of a certain word class to a different word class without any change in form. In Panglobish, this is very common. In fact, most words don't belong to any fixed word classes. Instead, the word class is determined by the word's place in the sentence.

For example, the word blanke can function equally as an adjective (blank or void), noun (a blank) and verb (to make blank or to get blank).

yu have som blanke papir, no? – Do you have some blank paper?
give mi un blanke! – Give me a blank!
yu mus blanke da texte. – You must blank out the text.

Likewise, the word skribe can function as a verb (to write), a noun (a writing) and adjective (written or textual).

mi skribe un letre. – I write a letter.
un letre is un skribe misaje. – A letter is a written message.
mi love yu's skribe. – I love your writings.

Compound Words

Words can be combined freely in Panglobish to express new concepts. The last element in the combination is the main one in determining the meaning, while the preceding element only modifies the meaning.

For example, skribe meza means a type of table, 'a writing table'. Similarly, kristal klare 'crystal-clear', love lete 'love letter', kafe kupe 'coffeecup'.

Compound words may be written together or separately. Especially established compound words are usually written together. For example, the word for democracy is more commonly demekratie than deme kratie.

Affixation

Prefixes and suffixes are very important and give great flexibility to the language. The most useful ones are listed here. A few of these are in fact ordinary words which are also used on their own, but most are true prefixes or suffixes and can be used only as such, not as separate words.

Prefixes

a- 'to oneself' :
cepe 'take, catch' → acepe 'take to oneself, accept'
lige 'tie' → alige 'tie to oneself, ally'

an- 'opposite, un-, in-' :
hapi 'happy' → anhapi 'unhappy'
juste 'just, fair' → anjuste 'injust, unfair'
human 'human' → anhuman 'inhuman'

de- 'away, off' :
cepe 'take, catch' → decepe 'take away, remove'
duce 'lead, conduct' → deduce 'lead away, deduce'
parte 'part, chip' → departe 'part away, chip off'

di- 'do the opposite of' :
strute 'structure' → distrute 'destruct'
kode 'code, encode' → dikode 'decode, decipher'
kovre 'cover' → dikovre 'discover'
krese 'grow' → dikrese 'ungrow, decrease'

ex 'out' :
cepe 'take, catch' → excepe 'take out, except'
jete 'thrust' → exjete 'thrust out, eject'

in- 'in, into, in-, en-' :
jete 'thrust' → injete 'thrust in, inject'
kluze 'close, shut' → inkluze 'close in, enclose, include'

kon- 'together' :
strute 'structure' → konstrute 'construct, put together'
werke 'work' → konwerke 'work together, collaborate'

mes- 'wrong, badly' :
uze 'use' → mesuze 'misuse'

non- 'absence of, non-' :
dewiste 'theist' → nondewiste 'atheist'
sence 'sense' → nonsence 'nonsense'
tabakiste 'smoker' → nontabakiste 'non-smoker'

pos 'after' :
gere 'war' → posgeral 'post-war'
poze 'put, pose' → pospoze 'put after, postpone'

pre- 'before' :
dite 'tell'
predite 'foretell, predict'
vide 'see' → previde 'foresee, preview'

pro- 'onward, forth' :
poze 'put, pose' → propoze 'put forward, propose'
voke 'call, summon' → provoke 'call forth, provoke'

re- 'back' :
ate 'to act' → reate 'to act back, react'
turne 'to turn' → returne 'to turn back'

ri- 'again, repeatedly' :
du 'to do' → ridu 'redo, do again'
forme 'to form' → riforme 'to reform'

Suffixes

-ade 'object of' :
favore 'to favor' → favorade 'favored, favorite'
tere 'to scare or frighten' → terade 'scared, frightened'

-aje 'thing made of' :
mise 'send' → misaje 'something sent, message'
face 'face' → facaje 'facade, frontage'
limon 'lemon' → limonaje 'lemonade'

-al 'relating to, concerning' :
nacie 'nation' → nacial 'national'
socie 'society' → social 'social'
universe 'universe' → universal 'universal'

-an 'one who belongs to, one who has membership in the country, city or group' :
Amerika 'America' → Amerikan 'American'
Italia 'Italy' → Italian 'Italian'
Rusia 'Russia' → Rusian 'Russian'
Paris 'the city of Paris' → Parisan 'Parisian'
Kristia 'Christendom' → kristian 'Christian'
hume 'earth, soil' → human 'earthling' and, by extension, 'human being'

-ar 'group or series of' :
kolun 'column' → kolunar 'colonnade'

-ate 'act in the specified manner' :
rote 'wheel' → rotate 'to rotate, to turn like a wheel'
formule 'formula' → formulate 'to formulate'

-ation 'action' :
rote 'wheel' → rotation 'rotation'

-eme 'a distinct meaningful element' :
fone 'speech sound' → foneme 'phoneme, distinct speech sound'
lexe 'word' → lexeme 'lexeme'

-er 'doer, agent, -er' :
helpe 'help, assist' → helper 'helper, assistant'
beke 'bake' → beker 'baker'

-eria 'name of place for making, producing or selling' :
beker 'baker' → bekeria 'bakery'
perfume 'perfume' → perfumeria 'perfumery'

-erie 'profession or typical behaviour associated with the suffixed word' injener 'engineer' → injenerie 'engineering'

-ete 'diminutive, -ette, -let' :
cigare 'cigar' → cigarete 'cigarette'

-ful 'full of, -ful' :
helpe 'help' → helpeful 'helpful'

-ia 'area, region, country' :
Arabe 'Arab' → Arabia 'Arabia'
Itale 'Italian' → Italia 'Italy'
Rus 'Russian, Ruski' → Rusia 'Russia'

-ie 'an abstract collective or an area or field of knowledge' :
filsofe 'philosophy, world view' → filsofie 'philosophy as a discipline'
kime 'chemical' → kimie 'chemistry'

-ife 'to make, render, turn or transform into' :
petre 'stone' → petrife 'petrify, to turn to stone'
un 'one' → unife 'unify'
klare 'clear' → klarife 'clarify'

-ike 'of the style or manner of, -ish, -esque' :
baze 'base, basis' → bazike 'basic, fundamental'
fize 'physis' → fizike 'physical'
muze 'muse' → muzike 'of the muses, music'
nuve 'uusi' → nuvike 'novice, newbie'

-ime 'the most, superlative' :
pre 'fore, front' → prime 'foremost, prime'
extre 'outside, exterior' → extrime 'outermost, extreme'

-ion 'action or process' :
ate 'act, deed' → ation 'action, activity'
konsume 'consume' → konsumion 'consuming, consumption'

-ish 'language' :
English 'the English language'
Eskotish 'Scotch'
Panglobish 'world language, Panglobish'

-iste 'adherent of a way of life, -ist' :
alkohol 'alcohol' → alkoholiste 'alcoholic'
komun 'common, shared' → komuniste 'communist, adherent of shared ownership'
pacife 'pacify' → pacifiste 'pacifist'
tabake 'tobacco' → tabakiste 'smoker'

-isme 'way of thinking or behaving, -ism' :
alkohol 'alcohol' → alkoholisme 'alcoholism'
komun 'common, shared' → komunisme 'communism'
pacife 'pacify' → pacifisme 'pacifism'
tabake 'tobacco' → tabakisme 'smoking'

-ite 'quality, -ity, -ness' :
juste 'just, fair' → justite 'justice, fairness'
sane 'healthy, sound' → sanite 'health'
un 'one' → unite 'unity, oneness'

-ive 'inclinaed to' :
ate 'act, perform' → ative 'active, inclined to act'
exploze 'explode' → explozive 'explosive'

-ize 'equip with, supply with, decorate with, coat with' :
moterize 'to motorize'
komputerize 'to computerize'
robotize 'to robotize'
automatize 'to automatize'
eletrize 'to electrify'
harmonize 'to harmonize'
patinize 'to patinize'
galvanize 'to galvanize'
salize 'to salt'
kolorize 'to colorize'
aurize 'to gild, to cover with a layer of gold'

-lis 'without, -less' :
helpe 'apu' → helpelis 'helpless'
peni 'penny' → penilis 'penniless'

-os 'plenty of, -ous' :
pore 'pore' → poros – porous.

-ure 'result or product' :
korete 'to correct' → koreture 'a correction'
kulte 'cultivate a way of life' → kulture 'culture'
mixe 'mix' → mixure 'mixture'